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Editorials

特集:学生の増加、学外との協働、学習とイノベーションの実現過程の見直しなど、加速する時代の変化に応じた変革を迫られた大学が、解決策の模索、実験を独自に進めている。

Universities challenged p.273

The face of higher education is changing at a rapid rate.

doi: 10.1038/514273a

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BICEP2による重力波の発見をめぐる騒動によって数多く教訓が残され、とりわけ明確になったのは、大部分の科学研究が常に発展途上にあるということだ。

Dust to dust p.273

What lessons can be learned from the presentation of the gravitational-waves story?

doi: 10.1038/514273b

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特集:査読者の実績を総合的に記録し、顕彰する活動が盛んになっており、これは歓迎すべき流れである。

Review rewards p.274

Welcome efforts are being made to recognize academics who give up their time to peer review.

doi: 10.1038/514274a

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News

細胞の再プログラム化によるβ細胞の作製成功で、1型糖尿病の移植治療に希望が見えてきたが、移植によって起こる免疫応答への対応が課題に。

Stem-cell success aids diabetes fight p.281

Researchers must now work out how to protect cell transplants from the immune systems of people with type 1 diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/514281a

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巨大なゲノムデータの集積により、病気の原因となる遺伝子多様体の探索を強化へ。

Giant gene banks take on disease p.282

Researchers bring together troves of DNA sequences in the hope of teasing out links between traits and genetic variants.

doi: 10.1038/514282a

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ケープペンギンの個体数減少の原因を探るべく行われた大規模な漁業規制実験が、さらなる議論を巻き起こすことに。

African penguins put researchers in a flap p.283

Controlled fishing experiment raises controversy over cause of birds’ decline on Robben Island.

doi: 10.1038/514283a

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数字で見るエボラ出血熱。

Ebola by the numbers p.284

As the virus continues to rampage in West Africa, Nature’s graphic offers a guide to the figures that matter.

doi: 10.1038/514284a

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生きた細胞内の分子の動きの観察を可能にした超高解像蛍光顕微鏡の開発に寄与した研究者3名にノーベル化学賞が。

Insider view of cells scoops Nobel p.286

Three scientists used fluorescent molecules to defy the limits of conventional optical microscopes.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16097

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News Features

特集:大学の実験

Higher education: The university experiment p.287

この特集では、大学の生き残りに必要な「進化」を達成するために各大学で行われている方法の模索と実践に焦点を当てる。

doi: 10.1038/514287a

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特集:キャンパスが実験室

The university experiment: Campus as laboratory p.288

世界中の大学が現代社会へと適応するために進められている革新的な教授法、学習法や研究について、さまざまな国での事例を紹介する。

doi: 10.1038/514288a

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特集:研究の進め方を見直す

Arizona's big bet: The research rethink p.292

米国のアリゾナ州立大学は、学部・学科の垣根を壊して、研究と教育の変革を試みているが、その一方で、大学の基本的特徴を変えることの難しさを示す問題点も浮上している。

doi: 10.1038/514292a

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News & Views

進化生物学:最適グループが生き残る

Evolutionary biology: Survival of the fittest group p.308

社会性のあるクモを使った実験で、コロニーのサイズと構成が、そのコロニーの生存に立地特異的な様式で影響することが明らかになり、群れレベルの形質に対する自然選択が局所的適応に関わっていることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13755

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がん:一緒になって転移に進む

Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis p.309

乳がんが原因の死亡のほとんどは、原発腫瘍が二次部位に広がった際に起こっている。血流中に入った腫瘍細胞の塊は、循環中の単一の腫瘍細胞よりも転移を起こす頻度がずっと高いことが明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/514309a

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宇宙物理学:ちっちゃな銀河が星を形成する仕組み

Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars p.310

ヘリウムより重い元素の存在量が少ない2つの暗い銀河の観測で、これらの銀河の星形成効率は、天の川銀河や、天の川銀河に似た銀河の10分の1以下であることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/514310a

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がん:ヒト網膜芽細胞腫の起源

Cancer: The origin of human retinoblastoma p.312

ヒトのがんの多くは、その起源となる細胞が明らかにされていないが、胚性網膜細胞の解析で、小児がんである網膜芽細胞腫の起源となる細胞が分化中の錐体細胞であることが突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/nature13748

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固体物理学:再設計された歴史的実験

Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned p.313

リュードベリ励起子と呼ばれる大きな準粒子が、酸化銅の天然結晶中で観測された。この結果は、単一光子ロジックデバイスのような応用に使えるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/514313a

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ゲノミクス:大型蝶の「渡り」に関わる遺伝子

Genomics: Of monarchs and migration p.314

オオカバマダラ属の蝶の移動性および定住性の個体群に由来する101個体のゲノムの塩基配列が解読され、昆虫の移動と体色の基盤となっている遺伝子と分子経路が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13757

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Articles

集団遺伝学:オオカバマダラの移動と警告色の遺伝学

The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration p.317

The monarch butterfly, well known for its spectacular annual migration across North America, is shown by genome sequencing of monarchs from around the world to have been ancestrally migratory and to have dispersed out of North America to occupy its current broad distribution; the authors also discovered signatures of selection associated with migration within loci implicated in flight muscle function, leading to greater flight efficiency.

doi: 10.1038/nature13812

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細胞:生来の造血のクローン動態

Clonal dynamics of native haematopoiesis p.322

On the basis of transplantation experiments it is generally believed that a very small number of haematopoietic stem cells maintain multi-lineage haematopoiesis by stably producing a hierarchy of short-lived progenitor cells; here a new transposon-based labelling technique shows that this might not be the case during non-transplant haematopoiesis, but rather that a large number of long-lived progenitors are the main drivers of steady-state haematopoiesis during most of adulthood.

doi: 10.1038/nature13824

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神経科学:グルタミン酸受容体の活性化と脱感作の構造的機構

Structural mechanism of glutamate receptor activation and desensitization p.328

Cryo-electron microscopy is used to visualize the AMPA receptor GluA2 and the kainate receptor GluK2 in several functional states — having access to so many different structural states has enabled the authors to propose a molecular model for the gating cycle of glutamate receptors.

doi: 10.1038/nature13603

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Letters

宇宙:金属量の極端に少ない銀河における非効率的な星形成

Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies p.335

Spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below 10 per cent of the solar value show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

doi: 10.1038/nature13820

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宇宙:古典新星のγ線放射と質量放出を駆動する連星軌道

Binary orbits as the driver of γ-ray emission and mass ejection in classical novae p.339

Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems. Novae typically expel about 10−4 solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometres per second. However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy, prolonged optically thick winds or binary interaction with the nova envelope. Classical novae are now routinely detected at gigaelectronvolt γ-ray wavelengths, suggesting that relativistic particles are accelerated by strong shocks in the ejecta. Here we report high-resolution radio imaging of the γ-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon. We find that its ejecta were shaped by the motion of the binary system: some gas was expelled rapidly along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, while denser material drifted out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion. At the interface between the equatorial and polar regions, we observe synchrotron emission indicative of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration, thereby pinpointing the location of γ-ray production. Binary shaping of the nova ejecta and associated internal shocks are expected to be widespread among novae, explaining why many novae are γ-ray emitters.

doi: 10.1038/nature13773

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固体物理学:酸化銅Cu2Oにおける巨大リュードベリ励起子

Giant Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O p.343

Rydberg excitons (condensed-matter analogues of hydrogen atoms) are shown to exist in single-crystal copper oxide with principal quantum numbers as large as n = 25 and giant wavefunctions with extensions of around two micrometres; this has implications for research in condensed-matter optics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13832

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電気化学:電力網レベルでのエネルギー貯蔵のためのリチウム–アンチモン–鉛液体金属電池

Lithium–antimony–lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage p.348

All-liquid batteries comprising a lithium negative electrode and an antimony–lead positive electrode have a higher current density and a longer cycle life than conventional batteries, can be more easily used to make large-scale storage systems, and so potentially present a low-cost means of grid-level energy storage.

doi: 10.1038/nature13700

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大気化学:石油・ガス盆地におけるカルボニルの光分解に起因する冬季の高濃度オゾン汚染

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin p.351

Data from the oil- and gas-producing basin of northeastern Utah and a box model are used to assess the photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds that lead to excessive atmospheric ozone pollution in winter.

doi: 10.1038/nature13767

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地球化学:サモア・プリュームの地球化学的配置を明らかにするヘリウムと鉛の同位体

Helium and lead isotopes reveal the geochemical geometry of the Samoan plume p.355

Analysis of the lead and helium isotopes in Samoan hotspot lavas reveals four low-3He/4He types of lava that do not mix much with each other but do mix with a high-3He/4He component.

doi: 10.1038/nature13794

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進化:立地特異的な群選択が局所的に適応した群れ構成を促進する

Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions p.359

Here, colonies of social spiders are used to investigate the evolution of a group-level trait, the ratio of individuals with the ‘docile’ versus ‘aggressive’ phenotype in a colony; experimental colonies were generated with varying ratios and established in the wild, revealing group-level selection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13811

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進化:ハルキゲニアの有爪動物様の鉤爪と、Tactopodaの存在を裏付ける証拠

Hallucigenia’s onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda p.363

The claws of the Cambrian lobopodian Hallucigenia resemble the claws and jaws of extant onychophorans, establishing a close relationship between hallucigeniid lobopodians and onychophorans, resolving tardigrades as the closest extant relatives of true arthropods, and showing that the earliest ancestor of the arthropods and their kin would have looked like a lobopodian.

doi: 10.1038/nature13576

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植物科学:シロイヌナズナでの浸透圧感知に不可欠な、浸透圧ストレスによるCa2+増加はOSCA1によって仲介される

OSCA1 mediates osmotic-stress-evoked Ca2+ increases vital for osmosensing in Arabidopsis p.367

Water is crucial to plant growth and development. Environmental water deficiency triggers an osmotic stress signalling cascade, which induces short-term cellular responses to reduce water loss and long-term responses to remodel the transcriptional network and physiological and developmental processes. Several signalling components that have been identified by extensive genetic screens for altered sensitivities to osmotic stress seem to function downstream of the perception of osmotic stress. It is known that hyperosmolality and various other stimuli trigger increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Considering that in bacteria and animals osmosensing Ca2+ channels serve as osmosensors, hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increases have been widely speculated to be involved in osmosensing in plants. However, the molecular nature of corresponding Ca2+ channels remain unclear. Here we describe a hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel and its function in osmosensing in plants. Using calcium-imaging-based unbiased forward genetic screens we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit low hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increases. These mutants were rescreened for their cellular, physiological and developmental responses to osmotic stress, and those with clear combined phenotypes were selected for further physical mapping. One of the mutants, reduced hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]i increase 1 (osca1), displays impaired osmotic Ca2+ signalling in guard cells and root cells, and attenuated water transpiration regulation and root growth in response to osmotic stress. OSCA1 is identified as a previously unknown plasma membrane protein and forms hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels, revealing that OSCA1 may be an osmosensor. OSCA1 represents a channel responsible for [Ca2+]i increases induced by a stimulus in plants, opening up new avenues for studying Ca2+ machineries for other stimuli and providing potential molecular genetic targets for engineering drought-resistant crops.

doi: 10.1038/nature13593

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免疫:5′-二リン酸を持つRNAのRIG-Iを介した認識による抗ウイルス免疫

Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5′-diphosphates p.372

Mammalian cells possess mechanisms to detect and defend themselves from invading viruses. In the cytosol, the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I; encoded by DDX58) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; encoded by IFIH1) sense atypical RNAs associated with virus infection. Detection triggers a signalling cascade via the adaptor MAVS that culminates in the production of type I interferons (IFN-α and β; hereafter IFN), which are key antiviral cytokines. RIG-I and MDA5 are activated by distinct viral RNA structures and much evidence indicates that RIG-I responds to RNAs bearing a triphosphate (ppp) moiety in conjunction with a blunt-ended, base-paired region at the 5′-end (reviewed in refs 1, 2, 3). Here we show that RIG-I also mediates antiviral responses to RNAs bearing 5′-diphosphates (5′pp). Genomes from mammalian reoviruses with 5′pp termini, 5′pp-RNA isolated from yeast L-A virus, and base-paired 5′pp-RNAs made by in vitro transcription or chemical synthesis, all bind to RIG-I and serve as RIG-I agonists. Furthermore, a RIG-I-dependent response to 5′pp-RNA is essential for controlling reovirus infection in cultured cells and in mice. Thus, the minimal determinant for RIG-I recognition is a base-paired RNA with 5′pp. Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not in uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5′pp-RNA, like that of 5′ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system.

doi: 10.1038/nature13590

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細胞生物学:単一細胞レベルでの代謝と成長に見られる確率論的性質

Stochasticity of metabolism and growth at the single-cell level p.376

The inherent stochasticity in metabolic reactions is a potent source of phenotypic heterogeneity in cell populations, with potentially fundamental implications for cancer research.

doi: 10.1038/nature13582

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がん:CRISPRによるマウス肝臓でのがん遺伝子の直接的変異

CRISPR-mediated direct mutation of cancer genes in the mouse liver p.380

CRISPR plasmids targeting Pten and p53, alone and in combination, are delivered by hydrodynamic injection to the liver; the CRISPR-mediated mutations phenocopy the effects of deletions using Cre–LoxP technology, allowing the direct mutation of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes in the liver using the CRISPR/Cas system, which presents a new approach for rapid development of liver cancer models and functional genomics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13589

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がん:Rbはヒトの錐体前駆細胞に由来する網膜芽細胞腫を抑制する

Rb suppresses human cone-precursor-derived retinoblastoma tumours p.385

The nature of the retinal cell-type-specific circuitry that predisposes to retinoblastoma is demonstrated, in which a program that is unique to post-mitotic human cone precursors sensitizes to the oncogenic effects of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein depletion; hence, the loss of Rb collaborates with the molecular framework of cone precursors to initiate tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13813

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免疫:B細胞では非コードRNAの転写が、AIDを分岐転写される遺伝子座へと誘導する

Noncoding RNA transcription targets AID to divergently transcribed loci in B cells p.389

The 11-subunit RNA exosome is thought to regulate the mammalian noncoding transcriptome; here, a mouse model is generated in which the essential Exosc3 subunit of the RNA exosome in B cells is conditionally deleted, revealing a link between sites of genomic RNA exosome function and AID-mediated chromosomal translocations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13580

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