目次

Editorials

西アフリカでのエボラ出血熱の大流行によって、新興感染症対策の大きな欠陥が露呈した。

First response, revisited p.459

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has starkly exposed major gaps in plans to tackle emerging infectious diseases. Lessons must be learned.

doi: 10.1038/513459a

ドイツの研究機関は、動物研究を行う研究者を守るため、対策を講じるべきだ。

Staff support p.459

German research organizations need to help their workers to defend animal research.

doi: 10.1038/513459b

スコットランドの住民投票で、科学者が政治的論争に影響を及ぼせることが明らかになった。

Special interest p.460

As the Scottish referendum showed, scientists’ views can influence political debate.

doi: 10.1038/513460a

News

ブラジルの大統領選挙戦が始まり、環境保護活動家のMarina Silvaに予想以上の勢いが。

Brazil warming to ‘green’ policies p.467

Activist Marina Silva is gaining ground in presidential polls.

doi: 10.1038/513467a

中国科学院が、大規模な組織改革を。

Chinese science gets mass transformation p.468

Teamwork at centre of Chinese Academy of Sciences reform.

doi: 10.1038/513468a

国連や米国が動き始め、国際的なエボラ対策がようやく本格的に。

Global Ebola response kicks into gear at last p.469

US and UN mobilizations are welcome but overdue.

doi: 10.1038/513469a

安価で高効率のペロブスカイト太陽電池に、太陽光発電市場から期待が。

Cheap solar cells tempt businesses p.470

Easy-to-make perovskite films rival silicon for efficiency.

doi: 10.1038/513470a

米国が、抗生物質耐性との闘いを強化へ。

US vows to combat antibiotic resistance p.471

Strategy lauded, but some fear it is lax on agricultural use.

doi: 10.1038/513471a

FDAが、医薬品の安全性評価のために診療記録をモニタリングするシステムを、本格運用へ。

Drug-safety pilot makes the grade p.472

FDA will continue to monitor safety from health records.

doi: 10.1038/513472a

News Features

感染症:放棄された病棟

Infectious disease: Ebola’s lost ward p.474

シエラレオネのとある病院は、史上最悪のエボラ出血熱大流行の最前線で、治療と研究に苦闘を続けてきた。

doi: 10.1038/513474a

再生エネルギー:洋上風力発電

Renewable energy: Wind power tests the waters p.478

米国では海上に強い風の吹くところは多くあるものの、エネルギーとしての利用は進んでいない。

doi: 10.1038/513478a

News & Views

地球科学:川の流れを見直す

Earth science: A fresh look at river flow p.490

カナダのフレイザー川の詳細な調査から、河水の流れ方に関するこれまでの予想に疑問が投げ掛けられた。今回の結果は、水路が河床の岩盤を削って峡谷が形成される仕組みを再評価する必要性を明らかにしている。

doi: 10.1038/513490a

構造生物学:リボソームの内部を明らかにする

Structural biology: Ribosome revelations p.491

タンパク質は細胞でリボソームによって合成される。それぞれ異なる阻害剤と結合した酵母リボソーム16個の構造が明らかにされ、薬剤がリボソームの活性に影響を与える仕組みについての解明が進んだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13747

生物多様性:島々を渡り歩く船乗りトカゲ

Biodiversity: Leaping lizards p.492

カリブ海西インド諸島でのアノールトカゲの多様性についての研究から、島嶼生物地理学でこれまで重要な影響要因とされていた地理的隔離が、人為的な経済的隔離に取って代わられたことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/513492a

太陽系外惑星:水のある世界を見る窓

Extrasolar planets: Window on a watery world p.493

海王星と同じ程度の大きさの太陽系外惑星の大気中に水の存在を示す決定的な証拠が初めて見つかった。この結果は、より小型の地球型惑星で水を探索する道を開くと考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/513493a

疾患モデル:スタチンは骨増殖を促進する

Disease models: Statins give bone growth a boost p.494

小人症を引き起こす2種類の疾患について、幹細胞を使ったモデルが開発され、高コレステロール血症の治療薬であるスタチンが、軟骨形成と骨成長も促進する可能性が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13750

無機化学:カルシウムは酸素生成にどのように関わっているのか

Inorganic chemistry: How calcium affects oxygen formation p.495

カルシウムは光合成で水からの酸素発生に働く触媒の必須成分である。この触媒から酸素が解離されるようにすることも、カルシウムの働きの1つであるようだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13753

植物科学:ターボチャージャー搭載の光合成を目指す

Plant Science: Towards turbocharged photosynthesis p.497

Rubiscoは光合成に関わる酵素である。より効率の良いRubiscoを産生するタバコが、遺伝学的操作によって開発された。この成果は、作物の収量増大につながる重要な一歩である。

doi: 10.1038/nature13749

ネットワーク生物学:幹細胞分化の方向を示すコンパス

Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation p.498

in vitroで生成した細胞が、自然に生じた同種の細胞とどのような関係にあるかを明らかにするネットワーク生物学用のソフトウエアであるCellNetが開発された。CellNetは、目的に合った細胞の培養による生成を容易にすると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/513498a

Articles

気候:始新世後期の温室世界におけるアジアモンスーン

Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world p.501

Asian monsoons were strongly active 40 million years ago and were enhanced by high atmospheric CO2 content. They were significantly weakened when CO2 levels decreased 34 million years ago and then reinitiated several million years later.

doi: 10.1038/nature13704

医学:スタチン処理はFGFR3骨系統疾患の表現型を救済する

Statin treatment rescues FGFR3 skeletal dysplasia phenotypes p.507

This study reprograms fibroblasts from thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1) and achondroplasia (ACH) patients into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), finding that chondrogenic differentiation results in the formation of degraded cartilage; statin treatment led to significant recovery of bone growth in a mouse model of ACH.

doi: 10.1038/nature13775

がん:T細胞白血病におけるPI3K阻害剤への耐性獲得を伴う発がん性Notch1の喪失

Loss of oncogenic Notch1 with resistance to a PI3K inhibitor in T-cell leukaemia p.512

Mutations that dysregulate Notch1 and Ras/PI3K signalling are common in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; here, treatment with a PI3K inhibitor is shown to induce drug resistance that is associated with downregulation of activated Notch1 signalling, suggesting that inhibition of both Notch1 and PI3K could promote drug resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13495

構造生物学:真核生物リボソーム阻害の構造基盤

Structural basis for the inhibition of the eukaryotic ribosome p.517

Whereas previous structural investigation of ribosome inhibitors has been done using the prokaryotic ribosome, this work presents X-ray crystal structures of the yeast ribosome in complex with 16 inhibitors including eukaryotic-specific inhibitors; the inhibitors all bind the mRNA or tRNA binding sites, larger molecules appear to target specifically the first elongation cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature13737

Letters

宇宙:散開星団における化学的均質性の起源としての初期の乱流混合

Early turbulent mixing as the origin of chemical homogeneity in open star clusters p.523

Simulations tracing the mixing of chemical elements as star-forming clouds assemble and collapse show that turbulent mixing during cloud assembly naturally produces a scatter of stellar abundance much smaller than that in the gas, explaining why stars in the same cluster appear to be nearly identical in their chemical abundances.

doi: 10.1038/nature13662

宇宙:海王星サイズの系外惑星の晴れ渡った大気における水蒸気吸収線

Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet p.526

Space telescope observations of the transmission spectrum of the extrasolar planet HAT-P-11b, which is about the same size as Neptune, reveal water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres and indicate that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar.

doi: 10.1038/nature13785

生態学:隠れた海洋硫黄循環に対する上限の設定

Placing an upper limit on cryptic marine sulphur cycling p.530

The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulphate in oxygen-deficient waters records the degree of in situ sulphur cycling.

doi: 10.1038/nature13698

地球:岩盤峡谷の流れ

Flow in bedrock canyons p.534

A survey along the Fraser Canyon in Canada reveals complex flow dynamics involving velocity inversions and upwelling, which suggests ways to improve flow and bedrock incision modelling.

doi: 10.1038/nature13779

進化:脳構造から明らかになるアノマロカリス類の付属肢の体節との関連性

Brain structure resolves the segmental affinity of anomalocaridid appendages p.538

A contemporary test of the theory of island biogeography, in which species richness is determined by an island’s area and isolation, shows that geographic area is still a good positive predictor of species richness, but that geographic isolation as a negative predictor has been replaced by economic isolation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13486

生態学:人新世の島嶼生物地理学

Island biogeography of the Anthropocene p.543

A contemporary test of the theory of island biogeography, in which species richness is determined by an island’s area and isolation, shows that geographic area is still a good positive predictor of species richness, but that geographic isolation as a negative predictor has been replaced by economic isolation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13739

植物科学:作物の光合成を増強する可能性を持つ、触媒速度のより速いRubisco

A faster Rubisco with potential to increase photosynthesis in crops p.547

In photosynthetic organisms, d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the major enzyme assimilating atmospheric CO2 into the biosphere. Owing to the wasteful oxygenase activity and slow turnover of Rubisco, the enzyme is among the most important targets for improving the photosynthetic efficiency of vascular plants. It has been anticipated that introducing the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) from cyanobacteria into plants could enhance crop yield. However, the complex nature of Rubisco’s assembly has made manipulation of the enzyme extremely challenging, and attempts to replace it in plants with the enzymes from cyanobacteria and red algae have not been successful. Here we report two transplastomic tobacco lines with functional Rubisco from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 (Se7942). We knocked out the native tobacco gene encoding the large subunit of Rubisco by inserting the large and small subunit genes of the Se7942 enzyme, in combination with either the corresponding Se7942 assembly chaperone, RbcX, or an internal carboxysomal protein, CcmM35, which incorporates three small subunit-like domains. Se7942 Rubisco and CcmM35 formed macromolecular complexes within the chloroplast stroma, mirroring an early step in the biogenesis of cyanobacterial β-carboxysomes. Both transformed lines were photosynthetically competent, supporting autotrophic growth, and their respective forms of Rubisco had higher rates of CO2 fixation per unit of enzyme than the tobacco control. These transplastomic tobacco lines represent an important step towards improved photosynthesis in plants and will be valuable hosts for future addition of the remaining components of the cyanobacterial CCM, such as inorganic carbon transporters and the β-carboxysome shell proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature13776

細胞:歯のモデル系における間葉系幹細胞のグリア起源

Glial origin of mesenchymal stem cells in a tooth model system p.551

In the mouse, nerve-associated peripheral glial cells give rise to mesenchymal stem cells that contribute to the development and growth of adult teeth.

doi: 10.1038/nature13536

微生物学:RNAi依存的なエピ変異により生じる抗真菌剤耐性

Antifungal drug resistance evoked via RNAi-dependent epimutations p.555

The human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides develops spontaneous resistance to an antifungal drug both through mutation and through a newly identified epigenetic RNA-mediated pathway; RNA interference is spontaneously triggered to silence the fkbA gene, giving rise to drug-resistant epimutants that revert to being drug-sensitive once again when grown in the absence of drug.

doi: 10.1038/nature13575

がん:腫瘍に由来する乳酸による腫瘍関連マクロファージの機能的分極化

Functional polarization of tumour-associated macrophages by tumour-derived lactic acid p.559

The growth of tumours is supported by tumour production of lactic acid, which polarizes tumour-associated macrophages to an M2 phenotype through a pathway dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 1α.

doi: 10.1038/nature13490

免疫:アラーミンIL-33は腸で制御性T細胞の機能を促進する

The alarmin IL-33 promotes regulatory T-cell function in the intestine p.564

The alarmin interleukin-33 is constitutively expressed at barrier sites and released in response to tissue damage; here, the IL-33 receptor ST2 is shown to be preferentially expressed on colonic regulatory T cells, where it promotes regulatory T-cell function and adaptation to the inflammatory tissue environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature13577

構造生物学:Cas9エンドヌクレアーゼによるPAMに依存した標的DNA認識の構造基盤

Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease p.569

The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA bearing sequences complementary to a 20-nucleotide segment in the guide RNA. Cas9 has emerged as a versatile molecular tool for genome editing and gene expression control. RNA-guided DNA recognition and cleavage strictly require the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA. Here we report a crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with a single-molecule guide RNA and a target DNA containing a canonical 5′-NGG-3′ PAM. The structure reveals that the PAM motif resides in a base-paired DNA duplex. The non-complementary strand GG dinucleotide is read out via major-groove interactions with conserved arginine residues from the carboxy-terminal domain of Cas9. Interactions with the minor groove of the PAM duplex and the phosphodiester group at the +1 position in the target DNA strand contribute to local strand separation immediately upstream of the PAM. These observations suggest a mechanism for PAM-dependent target DNA melting and RNA–DNA hybrid formation. Furthermore, this study establishes a framework for the rational engineering of Cas9 enzymes with novel PAM specificities.

doi: 10.1038/nature13579

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度