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Editorials

STAP細胞関連の2編の論文は撤回されるが、その背景となったずさんさ、体制の不備の改善に、我々出版社、研究者、研究機関、助成機関は、ますます厳しく取り組む必要がある。

STAP retracted p.5

Two retractions highlight long-standing issues of trust and sloppiness that must be addressed.

doi: 10.1038/511005b

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エジプトの軍事政権の下で、人権が抑圧され、科学の自由が脅かされている。

Academic freedom under threat p.5

The human rights of academics in Egypt are being eroded by the military regime that has taken control of the country. The Arab Spring is on hold.

doi: 10.1038/511005a

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第一次世界大戦の勃発から100年に当たり、その影響を検証し、当時の記事を振り返る。

Science and war p.6

As the centenary of its outbreak approaches, Nature looks back on the First World War.

doi: 10.1038/511006a

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News

ウィスコンシン大学マディソン校(米国)が行ったインフルエンザウイルス研究のリスクアセスメントに対し、米国立アレルギー・感染症研究所(NIAID)が基準を満たしていないとの判断を。

Risks of flu work underrated p.13

US funding agency disagreed with university's assessment of potential threats.

doi: 10.1038/511013a

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オーストラリアで、科学に深刻な影響を及ぼす予算削減に、研究者たちが抗議を。

Australian budget hits science jobs p.14

Research-agency staff protest over slashed spending and concerns about country's future research capability.

doi: 10.1038/511014a

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遺伝子組換え(GM)トウモロコシをめぐって、メキシコの科学界が激しい論争に。

GM maize splits Mexico p.16

Legal challenge to transgenic crops has created a rift in the country's scientific community.

doi: 10.1038/511016a

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神経の遠隔刺激用電気回路を体内に埋め込んで治療するというエレクトロシューティカル分野に、期待と関心が。

Electroceuticals spark interest p.18

Industry and academia invest in treating diseases by delivering electrical charges to nerves.

doi: 10.1038/511018a

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News Features

幹細胞:瀬戸際の期待

Stem cells: Hope on the line p.19

幹細胞研究の推進を目指して米国カリフォルニア州が助成してきた再生医療研究所(CIRM)は、そろそろ結果を出すことが求められている。

doi: 10.1038/511019a

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天文学:混乱状態にある惑星研究

Astronomy: Planets in chaos p.22

太陽系とは全く違った天体系が次々に発見され、惑星の誕生に関しても、これまでとは違った新しい理論が求められている。

doi: 10.1038/511022a

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News & Views

進化発生生物学:使わないものは失われる

Evolutionary developmental biology: Use it or lose it p.34

哺乳類の適応した四肢の発生の比較から、指の減少に至る道は多数あることが明らかになり、初期のパターン形成事象も進化的改変の対象として例外ではないことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13509

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天体物理学:ブラックホールトリオの中の緊密な2つ

Astrophysics: A tight duo in a trio of black holes p.35

2つの超大質量ブラックホールが緊密な対を作っていると重力波が放出されることが予想され、この重力波は宇宙を探索する新しい手段となると考えられる。今回、3つのブラックホールからなる珍しい三重星系の中に比較的緊密な対が見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13511

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構造生物学:樽から転がり出すリポ多糖

Structural biology: Lipopolysaccharide rolls out the barrel p.37

LptD–LptEタンパク質複合体の2つの結晶構造から、細胞壁の成分であるリポ多糖が細菌外膜の外葉に運ばれて、そこに挿入される仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13508

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気候科学:歴史からの逸脱

Climate science: Expulsion from history p.38

地球温暖化は、一部の地域での気候変数をこれまで経てきた変動範囲を越えたところに押しやり、おそらくそれはそのまま固定すると見積もられている。再評価の1つで、こうした変化が最近推定されたより早く始まるか、それとも遅く始まるかが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/511038a

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免疫学:結核に対して勝算あり

Immunology: Fixing the odds against tuberculosis p.39

免疫を調節する3種類の分子、つまりI型インターフェロン、インターロイキン1とプロスタグランジンE2の間の相互作用を明らかにする研究は、結核菌感染の転帰がばらつくことを説明する助けとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13512

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Articles

進化:哺乳類の進化の過程における指の減少のパターン形成時およびパターン形成後の様式

Patterning and post-patterning modes of evolutionary digit loss in mammals p.41

A study of limb development in multiple mammals reveals that evolutionary digit loss has occured in many different ways—at different stages and by different mechanisms, such as regulation of Shh in initial digit specification events or by removal of digits through cell death.

doi: 10.1038/nature13496

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進化:ウシ四肢の進化の基盤はPtch1によるSHH感知の低下である

Attenuated sensing of SHH by Ptch1 underlies evolution of bovine limbs p.46

The basic five-digit limb of tetrapods has been altered many times during evolution, usually by the progressive loss of digits — this study tracks the molecular underpinnings of this change, showing that in comparison to mouse, the polarized gene expression in the bovine limb bud is progressively lost due to evolutionary alteration of the cis-regulatory sequences that control Ptch1 expression in response to SHH signalling in the digit-forming handplate.

doi: 10.1038/nature13289

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構造生物学:リポ多糖の外膜への挿入の構造基盤

Structural basis for outer membrane lipopolysaccharide insertion p.52

Lipopolysaccharide, an essential component of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, is inserted by LptD–LptE, a protein complex with a unique ‘barrel and plug’ architecture; the structure, molecular dynamics simulations and functional assays of the LptD–LptE complex of Salmonella typhimurium suggest that lipopolysaccharide may pass through the barrel and is then inserted into the outer leaflet of the outer membrane through a lateral opening between two β-strands of LptD.

doi: 10.1038/nature13464

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Letters

宇宙:遠方にある超大質量ブラックホール三重星系における近接対をなす連星

A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system p.57

A triple supermassive black hole system has been found that shows helical modulation of the large-scale radio jets; this modulation is caused by two of the black holes being tightly coupled as a binary system.

doi: 10.1038/nature13454

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超伝導:アンダードープ高Tc銅酸化物における常伝導状態のノード電子構造

Normal-state nodal electronic structure in underdoped high-Tc copper oxides p.61

Quantum oscillation measurements in the underdoped copper oxide YBa2Cu3O6 + x reveal a nodal electronic structure from charge order, which helps to characterize the normal state out of which superconductivity emerges in the underdoped regime.

doi: 10.1038/nature13326

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光物理学:サブバンド間遷移と結合したプラズモニックメタ表面の巨大非線形応答

Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions p.65

Multiple-quantum-well semiconductors can provide one of the largest known nonlinear material responses, which is, however, geometrically limited to light beams polarized perpendicular to the semiconductor layers; by coupling a plasmonic metasurface to the semiconductor heterostructure, this limitation can be lifted, opening a new path towards ultrathin planarized components with large nonlinear response.

doi: 10.1038/nature13455

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量子物理学:半導体量子ドットのハイブリッドキュービットにおける量子制御とプロセストモグラフィー

Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit p.70

A simply prepared quantum bit that is a hybrid of spin and charge enables full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions; the speed arises from the charge-like characteristics, and the spin-like features result in increased quantum coherence.

doi: 10.1038/nature13407

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古海洋学:ベーリング・アレレード期の前の突発的な温暖化と深海における循環の変化

Abrupt pre-Bølling–Allerød warming and circulation changes in the deep ocean p.75

Analysis of radiocarbon and uranium-series dates and clumped isotope temperature estimates from water column profiles of fossil deep-sea corals in the North Atlantic shows that the release of heat from warm waters in the deep North Atlantic Ocean probably triggered the Bølling–Allerød warming and reinvigoration of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation 14,700 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature13472

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進化:始祖鳥の新しい標本から得られた大羽の進化の手がかり

New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers p.79

A new specimen of Archaeopteryx with extensive pennaceous feather preservation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13467

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進化:ある輪状種複合体に見られるゲノムの分岐

Genomic divergence in a ring species complex p.83

Two species may be fully reproductively isolated at the point they meet, but be connected by continuous gene flow by a longer route around the back of a geographical barrier; such a ring species complex exists for the greenish warbler, and genomics shows that there have been several historical breaks in gene flow along the continuum, as well as some introgression between the end forms.

doi: 10.1038/nature13285

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発生生物学:RLIMはマウス胚の胚盤葉上層におけるX染色体の不活性化に必要とされない

RLIM is dispensable for X-chromosome inactivation in the mouse embryonic epiblast p.86

The ubiquitin ligase RLIM is known to activate the long non-coding RNA Xist, which is crucial for X-chromosome inactivation in female mice; however, unlike imprinted X-chromosome inactivation that requires RLIM for Xist expression, evidence is now provided that during random X-chromosome inactivation Xist expression is regulated by an RLIM-independent pathway in vivo.

doi: 10.1038/nature13286

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がん:ソニックヘッジホッグ因子GLI1は誘導性グルクロン酸抱合を介して薬物抵抗性をもたらす

The sonic hedgehog factor GLI1 imparts drug resistance through inducible glucuronidation p.90

A new mechanism by which acute myeloid leukaemia patients become resistant to Ara-C and a newer treatment, ribavirin, is uncovered; these drugs can be glucuronidated and thereby inactivated by members of the UDP glucuronosyltransferase family of enzymes activated through GLI1 signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature13283

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医学:インスリン分解酵素阻害剤の抗糖尿病活性は複数のホルモンによって仲介される

Anti-diabetic activity of insulin-degrading enzyme inhibitors mediated by multiple hormones p.94

The discovery of a selective, physiologically active inhibitor of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) illuminates the therapeutic potential of IDE inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes and reveals that IDE regulates in vivo glucagon and amylin, in addition to insulin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13297

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免疫学:インターロイキン1とI型インターフェロンのクロストークに基づく宿主指向型の結核治療

Host-directed therapy of tuberculosis based on interleukin-1 and type I interferon crosstalk p.99

Active tuberculosis has been linked to excessive type I interferon induction whereas interleukin-1 may have protective effects; here it is shown that interleukin-1 enhances the production of prostaglandin E2, which helps contain the pathogen while also suppressing detrimental type I interferon.

doi: 10.1038/nature13489

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分子生物学:アーキアーゼとDDX1はtRNAスプライシング因子であることがオルソログ群の解析から明らかになった

Analysis of orthologous groups reveals archease and DDX1 as tRNA splicing factors p.104

Using a phylogenetic approach, the protein archease is identified as being a subunit of the human transfer RNA splicing ligase, and found to be necessary for full ligase activity, in cooperation with DDX1.

doi: 10.1038/nature13284

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構造生物学:細菌外膜へのリポ多糖挿入の構造基盤

Structural basis for lipopolysaccharide insertion in the bacterial outer membrane p.108

Lipopolysaccharide, an essential component of the Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane, is inserted by LptD–LptE, a protein complex with a unique ‘barrel and plug’ architecture; the structure of the LptD–LptE complex of Shigella flexneri determined here shows LptD forming a 26-stranded β-barrel with LptE located inside the barrel of LptD, the first two β-strands are distorted by two proline residues, creating a potential portal in the barrel wall that might allow lateral diffusion of lipopolysaccharide into the outer membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13484

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