目次

Editorials

コロナウイルスによる中東呼吸器症候群(MERS)のパンデミックに備え、国際的協力の下での十分な対策が必要だ。

Present danger p.311

There is much hype about predicting and preventing future pandemics, but not enough is being done about a threat sitting under our noses.

doi: 10.1038/510311a

ベルの定理が提案されて50年たったが、この定理に対する物理学者の意見はいまだに割れている。

Quanundrum p.312

Does reality exist? Fifty years on, Bell’s theorem still divides (and confuses) physicists.

doi: 10.1038/510312a

新しく始まった「神経科学夏の学校(TENSS)」は、ルーマニアの科学研究の促進剤になるだろう。

Summer skills p.312

A fledgling neuroscience programme is a rare beacon of research excellence in Romania.

doi: 10.1038/510312b

News

コンピュータ・ビジョンで「見る」3D画像が、歴史的遺物や史跡に触れる新たな機会に。

3D images remodel history p.319

Digital-photo software promises to offer unprecedented access to artefacts and sites.

doi: 10.1038/510319a

インド洋に浮かぶレユニオン島に自生するコアの木は、ハワイから地球半周を「ヒッチハイク」してたどり着いた種子により定着したことが、遺伝的解析から明らかに。

Tree hitched a ride to island p.320

Acacia analysis reveals globetrotting seed trekked 18,000 kilometres from Hawaii to Réunion.

doi: 10.1038/510320a

全米子供調査(NCS)について、データの収集・解析といった問題が明らかになったことで、その本格始動が遅れる恐れも。

US child study hits buffers p.323

Launch date for cohort study set to be delayed as data problems are identified.

doi: 10.1038/510323a

妊婦を対象にしたHIVの母子感染防止の治験を中止するようにという批判が、NIHに。

HIV trial attacked p.324

Critics question ethics of allowing pregnant women to receive treatment that falls below the standard in their country.

doi: 10.1038/510324a

アイルランド科学財団(SFI)が、大学の研究機関に外部監査導入を求める方向へ。

Irish university labs face external audits p.325

Funding agency aims to affirm best practice with independent checks on research methods.

doi: 10.1038/510325a

News Features

干からびた地球:いつでも使える水

The parched planet: Water on tap p.326

水不足を何とか改善しようと、これまでの型にはまらない給水源の研究が進んでいる。

doi: 10.1038/510326a

科学出版:有利な立場

Scientific publishing: The inside track p.330

米国科学アカデミーのメンバーは、その機関誌Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesへの掲載について、特権を享受してきた。

doi: 10.1038/510330a

News & Views

がん:生まれながらの「殺し屋」を解き放す

Cancer: Natural-born killers unleashed p.342

ホスホイノシチド 3-OHキナーゼδは、抑制性免疫細胞の働きの促進により抗腫瘍免疫応答を制限していることが分かった。この結果は、このキナーゼを標的とする薬剤の適用範囲をもっと多くのがんに広げるのにつながるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature13503

応用数学:カオス系の記憶が当てにならない仕組み

Applied mathematics: How chaos forgets and remembers p.343

「予測することは難しい、特に未来については」ということわざがある。カオス系のダイナミクスの情報理論に基づく研究から、この言葉に新しい意味が加わった。

doi: 10.1038/510343a

集団健康:未成熟な腸内細菌叢

Population health: Immaturity in the gut microbial community p.344

栄養不良状態にある乳幼児は成長が遅れるだけでなく、腸内細菌叢の成熟も遅れることが、急性の栄養不良を起こした幼児とバングラデシュの健康な乳幼児との比較研究で示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13347

量子計算:魔法の力を借りる

Quantum computing: Powered by magic p.345

古典的なデジタルコンピューターに比べて量子コンピューターの方がずっと魅力的なのはどういうところによるのだろうか。その理由が、状況依存性と呼ばれる量子力学に固有の定量可能な性質にあることが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13504

細胞生物学:絶妙なバランス

Cell biology: Balancing act p.347

酵素のパーキンは、細胞小器官のミトコンドリアが損傷を受けた場合にその廃棄を促進することが知られている。今回、パーキンと逆の働きをする酵素が見つかり、細胞内で微妙な釣り合いが保たれている仕組みが解明された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13500

量子物理学:「フォース」を感じよ

Quantum physics: Feel the force p.349

制御された量子系が精密なセンサーとして働く量子センシングに基づく方法によって、2つの離れたイオンにそれぞれ結合している2つの電子の間の弱い磁気相互作用が可能になった。

doi: 10.1038/510349a

Articles

量子物理学:状況依存性が量子計算に「魔法」を起こす

Contextuality supplies the ‘magic’ for quantum computation p.351

Quantum computing promises advantages over classical computing for certain problems; now ‘quantum contextuality’ — a generalization of the concept of quantum non-locality — is shown to be a critical resource that gives the most promising class of quantum computers their power.

doi: 10.1038/nature13460

植物科学:ユーカリの一種であるEucalyptus grandisのゲノム

The genome of Eucalyptus grandis OPEN p.356

The Eucalyptus grandis genome has been sequenced, revealing the greatest number of tandem duplications of any plant genome sequenced so far, and the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils; genome sequencing of the sister species E. globules and a set of inbred E. grand is tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13308

細胞生物学:単一細胞RNA-seqにより明らかになった細胞変動の動的な傍分泌制御

Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic paracrine control of cellular variation p.363

Large-scale single-cell RNA-seq of stimulated primary mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells highlights positive and negative intercellular signalling pathways that promote and restrain cellular variation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13437

神経科学:ミトコンドリアの脱ユビキチン化酵素USP30はパーキン誘導性マイトファジーに拮抗的に作用する

The mitochondrial deubiquitinase USP30 opposes parkin-mediated mitophagy p.370

Damaged mitochondria are removed by mitophagy, and defects in mitophagy are linked to Parkinson’s disease; here it is shown that USP30, a deubiquitinase localized to mitochondria, antagonizes mitophagy by removing the ubiquitin tags put in place by Parkin, USP30 inhibition is therefore potentially beneficial for Parkinson’s disease by promoting mitochondrial clearance and quality control.

doi: 10.1038/nature13418

Letters

物理学:2個の離れたイオンの2個の束縛電子の間の磁気相互作用の測定

Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions p.376

The magnetic interaction between two electrons is measured at the micrometre scale, exhibiting spin entanglement generation over 15 seconds of coherent evolution; varying the inter-electron separation shows a distance dependence consistent with the inverse-cube law.

doi: 10.1038/nature13403

物理化学:氷の均一核形成温度以下における水構造の超高速X線プロービング

Ultrafast X-ray probing of water structure below the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature p.381

Femtosecond X-ray laser pulses are used to probe the structure of liquid water in micrometre-sized droplets that have been cooled below the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature, revealing the existence of metastable bulk liquid water down to temperatures of 227 kelvin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13266

物理化学:水の分子モデルにおける準安定液体–液体転移

Metastable liquid–liquid transition in a molecular model of water p.385

A stable crystal phase and two metastable liquid phases of the ST2 model of water exist at the same deeply supercooled condition, and the two liquids undergo a first-order liquid–liquid transition that meets stringent thermodynamic criteria.

doi: 10.1038/nature13405

地球科学:シリカ濃縮が沈み込み帯ゆっくり地震の周期性を制御している可能性

Possible control of subduction zone slow-earthquake periodicity by silica enrichment p.389

Seismic data from subduction zones that exhibit slow earthquakes reveal that the ratio of compressional-wave to shear-wave velocity of the overriding forearc crust is linearly related to the average recurrence time of slow earthquakes and that this may be associated with quartz enrichment within the forearc crust.

doi: 10.1038/nature13391

細胞生物学:mTORC1は静止状態の幹細胞のG0期からGAlert期への適応的移行を制御する

mTORC1 controls the adaptive transition of quiescent stem cells from G0 to GAlert p.393

A mouse study reveals that the stem cell quiescent state is composed of two distinct phases, G0 and GAlert; stem cells reversibly transition between these two phases in response to systemic environmental stimuli acting through the mTORC1 pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature13255

生化学:代謝産物であるα-ケトグルタル酸は、ATPシンターゼとTORの阻害によって寿命を延ばす

The metabolite α-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR p.397

Metabolism and ageing are intimately linked. Compared with ad libitum feeding, dietary restriction consistently extends lifespan and delays age-related diseases in evolutionarily diverse organisms. Similar conditions of nutrient limitation and genetic or pharmacological perturbations of nutrient or energy metabolism also have longevity benefits. Recently, several metabolites have been identified that modulate ageing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are largely undefined. Here we show that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, extends the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. ATP synthase subunit β is identified as a novel binding protein of α-KG using a small-molecule target identification strategy termed drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS). The ATP synthase, also known as complex V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is the main cellular energy-generating machinery and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Although complete loss of mitochondrial function is detrimental, partial suppression of the electron transport chain has been shown to extend C. elegans lifespan. We show that α-KG inhibits ATP synthase and, similar to ATP synthase knockdown, inhibition by α-KG leads to reduced ATP content, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased autophagy in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. We provide evidence that the lifespan increase by α-KG requires ATP synthase subunit β and is dependent on target of rapamycin (TOR) downstream. Endogenous α-KG levels are increased on starvation and α-KG does not extend the lifespan of dietary-restricted animals, indicating that α-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by dietary restriction. Our analyses uncover new molecular links between a common metabolite, a universal cellular energy generator and dietary restriction in the regulation of organismal lifespan, thus suggesting new strategies for the prevention and treatment of ageing and age-related diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13264

がん:白血病におけるPTENの作用は組織の微小環境に左右される

PTEN action in leukaemia dictated by the tissue microenvironment p.402

A mouse model of T-cell leukaemia is used to test whether PTEN loss is required for tumour maintenance as well as initiation; although it had little effect on tumour load in haematopoietic organs, PTEN reactivation reduced the CCR9-dependent tumour dissemination to the intestine that was amplified on PTEN loss, exposing the importance of tumour microenvironment in PTEN-deficient settings.

doi: 10.1038/nature13239

免疫:PI(3)K p110δの不活化は、がんに対する制御性T細胞を介した免疫寛容を終わらせる

Inactivation of PI(3)K p110δ breaks regulatory T-cell-mediated immune tolerance to cancer p.407

The kinase PI(3)Kδ is shown to be required for the immunosuppressive function of regulatory T cells; inactivation of PI(3)Kδ in these cells leads to enhanced cytotoxic T-cell function and restricts tumour growth and metastasis in a variety of mouse tumour models.

doi: 10.1038/nature13444

がん:CFIm25は選択的ポリアデニル化を膠芽腫の抑制に結び付ける

CFIm25 links alternative polyadenylation to glioblastoma tumour suppression p.412

CFIm25 is identified as a factor that prevents messenger RNAs being shortened due to altered 3′ polyadenylation, which typically occurs when cells undergo high proliferation and correlates with increased tumorigenic activity in glioblastoma tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13261

微生物学:バングラデシュの栄養不良の乳幼児の腸内微生物叢は未成熟のままである

Persistent gut microbiota immaturity in malnourished Bangladeshi children p.417

Bacterial species whose representation defines healthy postnatal assembly of the gut microbiota in Bangladeshi children during their first 2 years are identified, and a model is constructed to compare healthy children to those with severe acute malnutrition (SAM); results show that SAM is associated with microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated by existing nutritional interventions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13421

生化学:リボソームのオキシゲナーゼは、原核生物からヒトまでその構造が保存されている

Ribosomal oxygenases are structurally conserved from prokaryotes to humans p.422

Crystal structures of human and prokaryotic ribosomal oxygenases reported here, with and without their ribosomal protein substrates, support their assignments as hydroxylases, and provide insights into the evolution of the JmjC-domain-containing hydroxylases and demethylases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13263

化学生物学:2-チオ糖生合成における一次代謝経路からの硫黄担体タンパク質の借用

Co-opting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis p.427

How sulphur is incorporated into sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood; here, the bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis is shown to co-opt sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways to facilitate the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products.

doi: 10.1038/nature13256

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