目次

Editorials

米エネルギー省(DOE)の改革は功を奏し、エネルギー研究が元気を取り戻しつつある。

Renewed energy p.7

Reforms at the US Department of Energy are recharging research.

doi: 10.1038/510007b

米国の特許法改正に遅れが生じているが、研究・技術革新を妨げる特許権乱用には対処が必要で、法整備に向けた取り組みを継続して行うべきだ。

Don’t feed the trolls p.7

Patent abuse slows down research and innovation, and must be confronted. Delays to US legislation are not reassuring, but there has been some progress in the courts.

doi: 10.1038/510007a

2014年のNatureメンター賞は、アイルランドで開催。

Integrity mentors p.8

Policies in Ireland and China make Nature’s 2014 mentoring awards timely.

doi: 10.1038/510008a

News

抗生物質耐性の広がりを背景に、ファージを使った治療に再び関心が。

Phage therapy gets revitalized p.15

The rise of antibiotic resistance rekindles interest in a century-old virus treatment.

doi: 10.1038/510015a

モンゴルのステップで、気候変動が植生に及ぼす影響の調査を。

Land models put to climate test p.16

Study under way on Mongolian steppes aims to improve knowledge of warming effects on vegetation.

doi: 10.1038/510016a

資金難で中断していた脊髄損傷の幹細胞治療の臨床試験が、新しい企業の下で再開へ。

Funding windfall rescues abandoned stem-cell trial p.18

But more players have joined the quest to treat spinal-cord injury with embryonic cells.

doi: 10.1038/510018a

ドイツが憲法を一部改正し、大学への研究助成の制約を緩和へ。

Federal boost for German science p.19

Agreement on changes to constitution pave way for university funding shake-up.

doi: 10.1038/510019a

宇宙誕生時の急膨張を裏付けるとされた重力波の証拠に、異論が。

Big Bang finding challenged p.20

Signal of gravitational waves was too weak to be significant, studies suggest.

doi: 10.1038/510020a

News Features

太陽エネルギー:人工の葉に芽吹きの春

Solar energy: Springtime for the artificial leaf p.22

光子をエネルギーに変換できる人工光合成装置の開発の取り組みが進んでいる。

doi: 10.1038/510022a

アルツハイマー病:忘却の遺伝子

Alzheimer's disease: The forgetting gene p.26

長い間無視されてきたアルツハイマー病の重要な遺伝的リスク因子に、研究者の関心が向き始めている。

doi: 10.1038/510026a

News & Views

進化生物学:クラゲの神経が巻き起こしたセンセーション

Evolutionary biology: Excitation over jelly nerves p.38

クシクラゲの一種の概要ゲノムと、それ以外の10種の有櫛動物の遺伝子転写プロファイルの解析から、この生物の神経系が他の生物とは別の進化起源を持つことが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13340

気候科学:南極の氷はどのように後退するのか

Climate science: How Antarctic ice retreats p.39

スコシア海で得られた、氷山によって運ばれた岩屑の新たな記録から、最終氷期極大期以降の南極氷床は、気候と全球海水準の変化に歩調を合わせて、偶発的に後退していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13345

細胞生物学:短鎖RNAの品切れと息切れ

Cell biology: Short RNAs and shortness of breath p.40

マウスで6種類のRNA分子が同時に欠失すると、呼吸器と生殖能力の不全が引き起こされることが分かった。これは細胞表面にある繊毛と呼ばれる構造の不適切な組み立てが原因である。

doi: 10.1038/510040a

天体物理学:ブラックホールの「MAD」な世界

Astrophysics: The MAD world of black holes p.42

可視光観測と電波観測の結果の解析から、活動銀河の中心部から強力なジェットが噴き出す仕組みが明らかにされた。こうした銀河の中心部では、超大質量ブラックホールがMAD(magnetically arrested disk)を介して物質を降着しているのである。

doi: 10.1038/510042a

C型肝炎:治療の勝利

Hepatitis C: Treatment triumphs p.43

最近の臨床研究の急速な進展は、全部とはいわないまでも、ほとんどの感染者でのC型肝炎ウイルス根絶に効果があり、忍容性が良好で、経口投与可能な薬剤の開発への転換期に我々があることを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/510043a

神経疾患:明らかになった品質管理経路

Neurological disorders: Quality-control pathway unlocked p.44

パーキンソン病に関わるとされるタンパク質の品質管理経路におけるミッシングリンクが修飾型のユビキチンタンパク質であることが、別々に行われた3つの研究によって突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/510044a

Articles

生体材料:共集合多成分タンパク質ナノ材料の精密設計

Accurate design of co-assembling multi-component protein nanomaterials p.103

A computational method is reported that can be used to design protein nanomaterials in which two distinct subunits co-assemble into a specific architecture; five 24-subunit cage-like protein nanomaterials are designed, and experiments show that their structures are in close agreement with the computational design models.

doi: 10.1038/nature13404

進化:有櫛動物のゲノムと神経系の進化的起源

The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems OPEN p.109

The draft genome of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei (Pacific sea gooseberry) is presented, together with ten other ctenophore transcriptomes — these genomes have a very different neurogenic, immune and developmental gene content when compared with other animal genomes, and it is proposed that ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.

doi: 10.1038/nature13400

細胞生物学:miR-34/449はcp110を抑制することにより運動繊毛形成に必要とされる

miR-34/449 miRNAs are required for motile ciliogenesis by repressing cp110 p.115

Loss-of-function studies of the miR-34/449 microRNA family in mouse and Xenopus reveal their evolutionarily conserved role in ciliogenesis by repressing expression of the centriolar protein Cp110.

doi: 10.1038/nature13413

生化学:ヒトのグルコース輸送体GLUT1の結晶構造

Crystal structure of the human glucose transporter GLUT1 p.121

The structure of human GLUT1 in an inward-open conformation is reported; access to the structure of the human protein, instead of just a bacterial homologue, made it possible to map (inactivating) mutations associated with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome onto the structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature13306

Letters

宇宙:降着を受けている超大質量ブラックホール付近の力学的に重要な磁場

Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes p.126

A study of 76 radio-loud active galaxies shows that the magnetic field in the bipolar jet that emanates from each galaxy is tightly correlated with the luminosity of the accretion disk; the jet-launching regions of these galaxies are therefore thought to be threaded by dynamically important magnetic fields that will affect the properties of the accretion disks.

doi: 10.1038/nature13399

化学:脂肪族アミンのパラジウム触媒C–H活性化によるひずんだ窒素ヘテロ環の生成

Palladium-catalysed C–H activation of aliphatic amines to give strained nitrogen heterocycles p.129

A palladium-catalysed C–H bond activation process is reported that proceeds through a four-membered-ring cyclopalladation pathway; it allows a methyl group that is adjacent to an unprotected secondary amine to be transformed into a synthetically versatile nitrogen heterocycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature13389

気候科学:最終退氷期における南極氷床流出の千年スケールの変動

Millennial-scale variability in Antarctic ice-sheet discharge during the last deglaciation p.134

Two well-dated, high-resolution records of iceberg-rafted debris are presented that document variability in Antarctic Ice Sheet discharge during the last deglaciation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13397

栄養:CO2濃度の上昇は人類の栄養摂取を脅かす

Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition p.139

The largest assemblage so far of published data shows that C3 crops have decreased zinc and iron levels under CO2 conditions predicted for the middle of this century, with worldwide nutritional implications.

doi: 10.1038/nature13179

神経科学:連合学習の際の嗅内皮質–海馬間の集団ニューロン活動の協調

Coordination of entorhinal–hippocampal ensemble activity during associative learning p.143

Simultaneous recordings from hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in rats show that as the animals learn odour guidance cues during their exploration of two-dimensional space in the laboratory, ensembles of coherently firing neurons emerge in both locations, with cortical–hippocampal oscillatory coupling occurring in a specific range of the beta-gamma frequency band.

doi: 10.1038/nature13162

微生物学:通性メタン酸化細菌Methylocella silvestrisの微量ガス代謝の多能性

Trace-gas metabolic versatility of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris p.148

The climate-active gas methane is generated both by biological processes and by thermogenic decomposition of fossil organic material, which forms methane and short-chain alkanes, principally ethane, propane and butane. In addition to natural sources, environments are exposed to anthropogenic inputs of all these gases from oil and gas extraction and distribution. The gases provide carbon and/or energy for a diverse range of microorganisms that can metabolize them in both anoxic and oxic zones. Aerobic methanotrophs, which can assimilate methane, have been considered to be entirely distinct from utilizers of short-chain alkanes, and studies of environments exposed to mixtures of methane and multi-carbon alkanes have assumed that disparate groups of microorganisms are responsible for the metabolism of these gases. Here we describe the mechanism by which a single bacterial strain, Methylocella silvestris, can use methane or propane as a carbon and energy source, documenting a methanotroph that can utilize a short-chain alkane as an alternative to methane. Furthermore, during growth on a mixture of these gases, efficient consumption of both gases occurred at the same time. Two soluble di-iron centre monooxygenase (SDIMO) gene clusters were identified and were found to be differentially expressed during bacterial growth on these gases, although both were required for efficient propane utilization. This report of a methanotroph expressing an additional SDIMO that seems to be uniquely involved in short-chain alkane metabolism suggests that such metabolic flexibility may be important in many environments where methane and short-chain alkanes co-occur.

doi: 10.1038/nature13192

免疫:腸内TH17細胞が示す共生細菌抗原に限定された特異性

Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens p.152

Segmented filamentous bacteria drive the acquisition of the TH17 phenotype in an antigen-specific manner; these findings begin to elucidate how gut-induced TH17 cells can contribute to distal organ-specific autoimmune disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature13279

免疫:侵害受容性感覚ニューロンはインターロイキン23が仲介する乾癬状の皮膚炎症を推進する

Nociceptive sensory neurons drive interleukin-23-mediated psoriasiform skin inflammation p.157

In mice, it is possible to induce a psoriasis-like condition by applying imiquimod; here, the production of interleukin-23 that is stimulated by such skin inflammation is shown to depend on the interaction of nociceptors expressing the Nav1.8 and TRPV1 channels with skin-resident dendritic cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13199

細胞生物学:PINK1によってリン酸化されたユビキチンがパーキンを活性化する

Ubiquitin is phosphorylated by PINK1 to activate parkin p.162

Ubiquitin, known for its role in post-translational modification of other proteins, undergoes post-translational modification itself; after a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, the kinase enzyme PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin at Ser 65, and the phosphorylated ubiquitin then interacts with ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzyme parkin, which is also phosphorylated by PINK1, and this process is sufficient for full activation of parkin enzymatic activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13392

がん:中心体増幅によるがん遺伝子様の細胞浸潤の誘導

Oncogene-like induction of cellular invasion from centrosome amplification p.167

Cancer cells often have extra centrosomes, a paradox considering the detrimental effect extra centrosomes usually have on cell division; a study of human cells reveals that extra centrosomes can promote cancer cell invasion phenotypes through a pathway involving increased microtubule nucleation and Rac1 activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13277

構造生物学:膜タンパク質は脂質に選択的に結合することで自身の構造と機能を調節する

Membrane proteins bind lipids selectively to modulate their structure and function p.172

A new mass-spectrometry method has been developed to obtain high-resolution spectra of folded proteins bound to lipids; using this technique as well as X-ray crystallography provides evidence for membrane protein conformational change as a result of lipid–protein interaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature13419

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