目次

Editorials

幹細胞治療への期待を揺るがすほど、その治験の論文には誤りが多く、対策を講じる必要がある。

False positives p.7

A correlation between error rate and success undermines promise of stem-cell trials.

doi: 10.1038/509007b

二酸化炭素回収・貯留は排出量抑制に役立ちはするが、もっと幅広い技術的、経済的取り組みがあってこそであり、気候変動には魔法のような解決策などあり得ない。

No magic fix for carbon p.7

Carbon capture and storage projects promise to make a dent in global emissions — but only as part of a broader programme of technology deployment and economic incentives.

doi: 10.1038/509007a

日本は早急に、研究不正を監視し、対処する機関を設けるべきだ。

Agency for change p.8

Japan’s proposed reforms to science monitoring are welcome but long overdue.

doi: 10.1038/509008a

News

早期臨床試験の論文の分析研究により、心臓の幹細胞治療の有効性に疑念が。

Doubts over heart stem-cell therapy p.15

Study queries early-phase trials of heart-disease treatment.

doi: 10.1038/509015a

米政府は、ワクチン生産体制の増強に積極的に取り組む方針だが、コストと戦略に疑問の声も。

US biodefence facilities ramp up p.16

Government effort to produce vaccines on demand raises questions about cost and strategy.

doi: 10.1038/509016a

企業の基礎研究離れが進む一方で、テクノロジー企業が基礎研究を後押しへ。

Basic science finds corporate refuge p.18

As many older companies move away from fundamental research, young technology firms are picking up the slack.

doi: 10.1038/509018a

カナダと米国の石炭火力発電所で、大規模な炭素回収システムが稼働へ。

Two plants to put ‘clean coal’ to test p.20

Large-scale carbon-capture projects set to go live this year.

doi: 10.1038/509020a

News Features

感染症:天然痘を探せ

Infectious diseases: Smallpox watch p.22

ウイルス学者が、史上最悪の病原体の1つ、天然痘ウイルスを見つけ出そうと、古い遺体を調査している。

doi: 10.1038/509022a

News & Views

生態学:コンゴ盆地における干ばつ

Ecology: Drought in the Congo Basin p.36

干ばつが常態となっているコンゴ盆地での熱帯林のリモートセンシング解析から、植生の緑色度の低下、気温上昇や貯水量の減少が継続的なパターンとして起こっていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13330

応用物理学:さえている電子ツイスター

Applied physics: Bright electron twisters p.37

新規なホログラフィー法を使って、通常の電子ビームがらせん状のビームに変換された。このようなビームは、キラリティーを持つ材料の分光分析やナノ粒子の操作などへの応用が期待される。

doi: 10.1038/509037a

神経科学:滑らかな動きをするためのフィードバック抑制

Neuroscience: Feedback throttled down for smooth moves p.38

マウスでは、脊髄中の調節性ニューロン群の1つが、筋肉への感覚フィードバックの抑制に関わっていることが分かった。このようなニューロンを除去すると到達運動の際に前肢の振動が繰り返されるようになる。

doi: 10.1038/509038a

地球物理学:地球を動かす

Geophysics: Making the Earth move p.40

地球の表面プレートの下にある柔らかいマントル層中で水とメルトが果たす役割については議論が続いている。新たに得られたデータは、マントル層の最上部に少量のメルトが生じているというモデルを裏付けている。

doi: 10.1038/509040a

天文学:太陽系外惑星の自転速度の測定

Astronomy: A new spin on exoplanets p.41

若い太陽系外惑星の分光観測から、その自転速度が直接測定できた。得られた速い自転速度は、自転速度が惑星質量の関数として増加するという既知の傾向を外挿したものと一致している。

doi: 10.1038/509041a

Articles

神経科学:脊髄感覚フィードバックのシナプス前抑制が円滑な運動を確実にする

Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement p.43

A population of spinal interneurons that form axo–axonic connections with the terminals of proprioceptive afferents are shown to mediate presynaptic inhibition; their ablation elicits harmonic oscillations during goal-directed forelimb movements, which can be modelled as the consequence of an increase in sensory feedback gain.

doi: 10.1038/nature13276

細胞:造血幹細胞は高度に調節されたタンパク質合成速度を必要とする

Haematopoietic stem cells require a highly regulated protein synthesis rate p.49

Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have a lower rate of protein synthesis in vivo than most other haematopoietic cells, and both increases and decreases in the rate of protein synthesis impair HSC function, demonstrating that HSC maintenance—and hence, cellular homeostasis—requires the rate of protein synthesis to be highly regulated.

doi: 10.1038/nature13035

免疫:V1V2に対する強力なHIV中和抗体の発生経路

Developmental pathway for potent V1V2-directed HIV-neutralizing antibodies p.55

A longitudinal study of an individual patient developing neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 (targeting the V1V2 region of gp120) reveals how such neutralizing antibodies develop and evolve over time, providing important insights relevant to vaccine development.

doi: 10.1038/nature13036

Letters

宇宙:若い太陽系外惑星がか座β星bの高速自転

Fast spin of the young extrasolar planet β Pictoris b p.63

The spin of a planet arises from the accretion of angular momentum during its formation, but the details of this process are still unclear. In the Solar System, the equatorial rotation velocities and, consequently, spin angular momenta of most of the planets increase with planetary mass; the exceptions to this trend are Mercury and Venus, which, since formation, have significantly spun down because of tidal interactions. Here we report near-infrared spectroscopic observations, at a resolving power of 100,000, of the young extrasolar gas giant planet β Pictoris b (refs 7, 8). The absorption signal from carbon monoxide in the planet’s thermal spectrum is found to be blueshifted with respect to that from the parent star by approximately 15 kilometres per second, consistent with a circular orbit. The combined line profile exhibits a rotational broadening of about 25 kilometres per second, meaning that β Pictoris b spins significantly faster than any planet in the Solar System, in line with the extrapolation of the known trend in spin velocity with planet mass.

doi: 10.1038/nature13253

光学:アルカリ原子とインターフェースをとった分子光子

Molecular photons interfaced with alkali atoms p.66

Single organic dye molecules have high-flux, narrow-bandwidth single-photon emission and can be spectrally matched to the transitions of atoms acting as a quantum memory, making them promising for use in quantum information and communication schemes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13191

有機化学:アトロプ異性体過剰な2軸系におけるキラリティーの自発的移行

Spontaneous transfer of chirality in an atropisomerically enriched two-axis system p.71

An enantioselective reaction involving a molecule with two axes of stereochemical consequence produces four stereoisomers, and rather than racemizing as the system approaches equilibrium, one of the diastereomeric pairs drifts spontaneously to a higher enantiomeric ratio.

doi: 10.1038/nature13189

気候科学:熱帯インド洋の気候に対する北大西洋の強制

North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate p.76

New sea surface temperature and oxygen isotope records, combined with climate modelling experiments, show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13196

地球:海洋低速度層の初期融解時の電気伝導度

Electrical conductivity during incipient melting in the oceanic low-velocity zone p.81

Determination of the electrical conductivity of carbon-dioxide- and water-rich melts, which are typically produced at the onset of mantle melting, shows that incipient melts can trigger the high electrical conductivities found in oceanic regions of the asthenosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature13245

生態学:過去10年間のコンゴ雨林の広範な緑色度低下

Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade p.86

The long-term drying trend in central African rainforests might help to explain satellite-detected large-scale vegetation browning in the Congolese forests.

doi: 10.1038/nature13265

がん:食道扁平上皮がんにおけるゲノム変化の同定

Identification of genomic alterations in oesophageal squamous cell cancer p.91

Using whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, this study identifies eight significantly mutated genes in oesophageal squamous cell cancer, including two genes, ADAM29 and FAM135B, not previously associated with this cancer type.

doi: 10.1038/nature13176

神経科学:シスタチオニンγリアーゼ欠損はハンチントン病の神経変性に関与している

Cystathionine γ-lyase deficiency mediates neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease p.96

Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a mutation in the gene encoding huntingtin (Htt) leading to expanded polyglutamine repeats of mutant Htt (mHtt) that elicit oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and motor and behavioural changes. Huntington’s disease is characterized by highly selective and profound damage to the corpus striatum, which regulates motor function. Striatal selectivity of Huntington’s disease may reflect the striatally selective small G protein Rhes binding to mHtt and enhancing its neurotoxicity. Specific molecular mechanisms by which mHtt elicits neurodegeneration have been hard to determine. Here we show a major depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the biosynthetic enzyme for cysteine, in Huntington’s disease tissues, which may mediate Huntington’s disease pathophysiology. The defect occurs at the transcriptional level and seems to reflect influences of mHtt on specificity protein 1, a transcriptional activator for CSE. Consistent with the notion of loss of CSE as a pathogenic mechanism, supplementation with cysteine reverses abnormalities in cultures of Huntington’s disease tissues and in intact mouse models of Huntington’s disease, suggesting therapeutic potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature13136

細胞:2細胞期マウス胚の間期細胞質による核の再プログラム化

Nuclear reprogramming by interphase cytoplasm of two-cell mouse embryos p.101

Reprogramming after somatic cell nuclear transfer had been thought to be dependent on the recipient cytoplasm being arrested at the metaphase stage, but here interphase two-cell mouse embryos are shown to support successful reprogramming and generation of embryonic stem cells or cloned mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature13134

細胞生物学:NCOA4がフェリチノファジーを仲介する積み荷受容体であることの定量的プロテオミクスによる同定

Quantitative proteomics identifies NCOA4 as the cargo receptor mediating ferritinophagy p.105

Through a quantitative proteomics analysis, a cohort of proteins is identified that associate with autophagosomes, among them a new cargo receptor called NCOA4 that, in response to iron deprivation, targets ferritin to autophagosomes and thereby releases iron.

doi: 10.1038/nature13148

構造生物学:RIG-Iによるユビキチンを介した抗ウイルスシグナル活性化の構造基盤

Structural basis for ubiquitin-mediated antiviral signal activation by RIG-I p.110

RIG-I protein recognizes viral duplex RNA with a 5′-triphosphate group, activating innate immune responses; a crystal structure of its tetrameric CARD signalling domain reveals that non-covalently linked ubiquitin chains stabilize the tetramer in a ‘lock-washer’ structure that serves as a signalling platform for the recruitment and activation of MAVS.

doi: 10.1038/nature13140

構造生物学:抗血栓薬と複合体を形成したヒトP2Y12受容体の構造

Structure of the human P2Y12 receptor in complex with an antithrombotic drug p.115

The X-ray crystal structure of the human P2Y12 receptor, which regulates platelet activation and thrombus formation, is solved in complex with an antithrombotic drug, providing insights for the development of new drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13083

構造生物学:アゴニストが結合したヒトP2Y12受容体の構造

Agonist-bound structure of the human P2Y12 receptor p.119

An X-ray structure of human P2Y12 receptor, a clinical drug target for platelet aggregation inhibitors, is presented in complex with an agonist, providing insight into the δ-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors.

doi: 10.1038/nature13288

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