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Editorials

放射性廃棄物の唯一の現実的な処分方法は地層処分であり、英政府は、候補地探しを粘り強く続けるべきだ。

In a hole p.5

It is in Britain’s best interests to keep looking for a site for a deep nuclear-waste repository.

doi: 10.1038/494005b

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日本が、野放しだった幹細胞治療の規制を検討中だが、患者を守るためには、明確な法的規制が必要だ。

Unknown territory p.5

Japan is making an overdue effort to regulate experimental stem-cell treatments. A clearly defined legal framework is needed to protect patients.

doi: 10.1038/494005a

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リチャード3世の遺骨の発見と同定は、さまざまな証拠に支えられており、注目されるのは当然だ。

Body of evidence p.6

The identification of a long-dead king is not simply an academic event.

doi: 10.1038/494006a

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News

長年続けられてきた地球観測を引き継ぐ、NASAのランドサット8号が打ち上げへ。

Landsat 8 to the rescue p.13

NASA prepares to launch satellite that will continue historic record of global change.

doi: 10.1038/494013a

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日本の複数の原発で、原子力規制委員会が活断層の疑いを指摘し、再稼働が困難に。

Quake fears rise at Japan’s reactors p.14

Commissioners say that geological faults make some reactors too dangerous to restart.

doi: 10.1038/494014a

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韓国で、相次いでフッ化水素漏出事故が。

Alert over South Korea toxic leaks p.15

Government moves to tighten oversight after string of hydrogen fluoride accidents.

doi: 10.1038/494015a

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LHC(大型ハドロン衝突型加速器)が、保守、改良のため、運転停止へ。

LHC set to halt for upgrades p.16

Maintenance, improvement work and data analysis will keep scientists busy as collider’s planned closure begins.

doi: 10.1038/494016a

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カリフォルニア大学サンフランシスコ校が、緊縮財政を見据えたキャンパス増設を。

Campus girds for lean times p.19

Plush San Francisco medical hub seeks to safeguard academic research.

doi: 10.1038/494019a

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News Features

生態学:柔軟なものが生き残る

Climate adaptation: Survival of the flexible p.22

多くの熱帯の生物は、極端な暑さ寒さの経験が乏しいため、温暖化によって絶滅するおそれがある。

doi: 10.1038/494022a

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トランスレーショナル科学:呪術医

Translational research: Medicine man p.24

NIHのトランスレーショナル研究センターのChristopher Austin所長には、迅速な新薬開発を可能にする戦略が期待されている。

doi: 10.1038/494024a

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News & Views

フォーラム:微生物学:足下の生命

Microbiology: The life beneath our feet p.40

地球の土壌は微生物でいっぱいで、こうした微生物は作物の生産量から炭素隔離まで、さまざまな過程を調節している。微生物群集の特徴付けには分子レベルの解析が非常に有用だが、その生態学的機能をもっとよく知るにはどうしたらいいだろうか。2人の微生物学研究者がデータマイニングと対象を絞った実験という2つの手法の優劣について論じている。

doi: 10.1038/494040a

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固体物理学:スピントロニクスの新しい展開

Solid-state physics: A new spin on spintronics p.43

磁場中での電荷キャリヤーの動き方を利用して、半導体接合に基づく計算ブロックが作られた。これは再構成ができ、相互接続して複雑な論理機能を持たせることも可能である。

doi: 10.1038/nature11944

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神経科学:塩味を感じる

Neuroscience: Salty sensations p.44

塩は健康においても病気においても重要な役割を持つが、哺乳類が塩の味を感じる仕組みは完全にはわかっていない。線虫での実験から、ヒトで聴覚に関連するとされているTMCタンパク質が塩味の感知にかかわる受容体であることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/nature11946

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菌類生物学:複数交配という戦略

Fungal biology: Multiple mating strategies p.45

病原体であるカンジダ菌Candida albicansで、染色体を1組しか持たないという珍しい株が見つかった。このような半数体株の形成は、ヒトの体内で損傷を受けた遺伝子コピーを取り除き、進化を促進する。

doi: 10.1038/nature11945

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宇宙物理学:超新星になるまで

Astrophysics: Going supernova p.46

大質量星が超新星として一生を終えるときの爆発は、「宇宙の果て」からでも見える可能性があるが、星の性質についてはわからないことが多い。新たに得られた観測結果から、そうした星の1つの爆発に至るまでの一生についての手がかりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/494046a

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Review

物理:量子気体におけるスピン軌道結合

Spin–orbit coupling in quantum gases p.49

The current experimental and theoretical status of spin–orbit coupling in ultracold atomic systems is discussed, highlighting unique features that enable otherwise impossible physics.

doi: 10.1038/nature11841

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Articles

遺伝:「絶対二倍体」のカンジダ菌は交配可能な半数体を形成する

The ‘obligate diploid’ Candida albicans forms mating-competent haploids p.55

Candida albicans, the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, is considered to be an obligate diploid that carries recessive lethal mutations throughout the genome. Here we demonstrate that C. albicans has a viable haploid state that can be derived from diploid cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and that seems to arise through a concerted chromosome loss mechanism. Haploids undergo morphogenetic changes like those of diploids, including the yeast–hyphal transition, chlamydospore formation and a white-opaque switch that facilitates mating. Haploid opaque cells of opposite mating type mate efficiently to regenerate the diploid form, restoring heterozygosity and fitness. Homozygous diploids arise spontaneously by auto-diploidization, and both haploids and auto-diploids show a similar reduction in fitness, in vitro and in vivo, relative to heterozygous diploids, indicating that homozygous cell types are transient in mixed populations. Finally, we constructed stable haploid strains with multiple auxotrophies that will facilitate molecular and genetic analyses of this important pathogen.

doi: 10.1038/nature11865

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構造生物学:ヒトIFITタンパク質によるウイルス5′-PPP-RNA認識の構造基盤

Structural basis for viral 5′-PPP-RNA recognition by human IFIT proteins p.60

Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are innate immune effector molecules that are thought to confer antiviral defence through disruption of protein–protein interactions in the host translation-initiation machinery. However, it was recently discovered that IFITs can directly recognize viral RNA bearing a 5′-triphosphate group (PPP-RNA), which is a molecular signature that distinguishes it from host RNA. Here we report crystal structures of human IFIT5, its complex with PPP-RNAs, and an amino-terminal fragment of IFIT1. The structures reveal a new helical domain that houses a positively charged cavity designed to specifically engage only single-stranded PPP-RNA, thus distinguishing it from the canonical cytosolic sensor of double-stranded viral PPP-RNA, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, also known as DDX58). Mutational analysis, proteolysis and gel-shift assays reveal that PPP-RNA is bound in a non-sequence-specific manner and requires a 5′-overhang of approximately three nucleotides. Abrogation of PPP-RNA binding in IFIT1 and IFIT5 was found to cause a defect in the antiviral response by human embryonic kidney cells. These results demonstrate the mechanism by which IFIT proteins selectively recognize viral RNA, and lend insight into their downstream effector function.

doi: 10.1038/nature11783

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Letters

宇宙:超新星爆発の40日前に起こった大質量星のアウトバースト

An outburst from a massive star 40 days before a supernova explosion p.65

A mass-loss event 40 days before the explosion of the type IIn supernova SN 2010mc has been detected; the outburst indicates that there is a causal relation between explosive mass-loss events seen in some massive stars before their explosion and the onset of the supernova explosion.

doi: 10.1038/nature11877

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物理:回折測定による状態混合体の再構成

Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements p.68

An imaging technique has been developed to characterize state mixtures caused by partial coherence and fluctuations in dynamical systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature11806

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工学:再構成可能な磁場制御半導体論理

Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic p.72

A microchannel made from InSb, which has current–voltage characteristics that are strongly dependent on the sign and magnitude of an applied magnetic field, is used to demonstrate that circuits made from such structures can be programmed — and reprogrammed — to perform elementary logic functions, such as AND, OR, NAND and NOR.

doi: 10.1038/nature11817

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工学:合成DNAで実用的な大容量低メンテナンス情報記憶を目指す

Towards practical, high-capacity, low-maintenance information storage in synthesized DNA p.77

An efficient and scalable strategy with robust error correction is reported for encoding a record amount of information (including images, text and audio files) in DNA strands; a ‘DNA archive’ has been synthesized, shipped from the USA to Germany, sequenced and the information read.

doi: 10.1038/nature11875

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気候:最終退氷期における南半球気候に対する北半球の強制

Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation p.81

Changes in ocean circulation are the most plausible explanation for the early Southern Hemisphere deglacial warming and its lead over Northern Hemisphere temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature11822

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生態:人類による持続的な撹乱に伴う多様性の減少は生態系の崩壊に対する脆弱性を高める

Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse p.86

Persistent anthropogenic disturbance is shown simultaneously to drive plant species loss and stabilize some attributes of ecosystem function, analogous to a high-yield, low-diversity agricultural system, but increase the likelihood of irreversible collapse after sudden environmental change.

doi: 10.1038/nature11869

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細胞:アストロサイトのドーパミンD2受容体による、αB-クリスタリンを介した神経炎症抑制

Suppression of neuroinflammation by astrocytic dopamine D2 receptors via αB-crystallin p.90

Chronic inflammation is a feature of the ageing brain and some neurodegenerative diseases; the authors show that astrocytes normally suppress neuroinflammation through activation of their DRD2 receptor by CRYAB, potentially opening new avenues for treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature11748

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生化学:線虫のtmc-1は塩の化学受容に必要なナトリウム感受性チャネルをコードする

tmc-1 encodes a sodium-sensitive channel required for salt chemosensation in C. elegans p.95

The membrane protein TMC-1 is required for salt avoidance behaviour in C. elegans, functions as an ion channel directly activated by NaCl in vitro and is a candidate salt chemosensor; the human homologue of TMC-1 is linked to deafness and may be the cochlear hair-cell mechanotransduction channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature11845

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細胞:誘導多能性幹細胞あるいは胚性幹細胞に由来する終末分化した細胞には免疫原性がほとんど見られない

Negligible immunogenicity of terminally differentiated cells derived from induced pluripotent or embryonic stem cells p.100

Immune rejection may limit the therapeutic use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); here, terminally differentiated mouse iPSCs are shown to generate negligible immune rejection in their host.

doi: 10.1038/nature11807

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医学:患者特異的なiPSCを用いた不整脈惹起性右室異形成の研究

Studying arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with patient-specific iPSCs p.105

This study demonstrates that an inheritable adult onset heart disease can be modelled in vitro within months with the help of metabolic maturation induction.

doi: 10.1038/nature11799

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生理:肥満が誘導するmiR-802の過剰発現はHnf1bのサイレンシングを介してグルコース代謝を妨げる

Obesity-induced overexpression of miR-802 impairs glucose metabolism through silencing of Hnf1b p.111

The livers of obese mice and humans show increased levels of miR-802 resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin sensitivity through silencing of Hnf1b, revealing a novel pathway with potential relevance for type 2 diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11793

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免疫:腸内細菌叢はCX3CR1hi細胞による腸間膜リンパ節への細菌の移送を制限している

Microbiota restricts trafficking of bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes by CX3CR1hi cells p.116

In mice, commensal bacteria are shown to provide critical signals that limit bacterial trafficking to the mesenteric lymph nodes by immune cells, thus preventing the induction of mucosal immune responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature11809

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生化学:生物活性のある薬草から製造した薬剤の、ATPによるヒトtRNA合成酵素上への捕捉

ATP-directed capture of bioactive herbal-based medicine on human tRNA synthetase p.121

The crystal structure of prolyl tRNA synthetase simultaneously bound to its substrate ATP and its inhibitor halofuginone, a derivative of a compound used to treat malaria, indicates that (through interactions with ATP) halofuginone occupies both the amino acid and tRNA binding sites on the synthetase, revealing a new model for developing synthetase inhibitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature11774

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発生:有糸分裂細胞の球形化が上皮の陥入を加速する

Mitotic cell rounding accelerates epithelial invagination p.125

Drosophila epithelial tracheal placode invagination is shown to be driven by mitotic cell rounding along with epithelial growth factor receptor signalling and myosin contractility in neighbouring cells, revealing a new cell-division-independent role for mitotic events in morphogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature11792

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