Two groups reporting in this issue of Nature use contrasting approaches to come to many of the same conclusions about the process of cancer immunoediting, in which an individual is protected from cancer though the elimination and immunogenic modification of cancerous cells. Matsushita et al . use whole-exon sequencing of mouse sarcomas induced by chemical carcinogens to obtain evidence for T-cell-mediated immuno-selection as a mechanism of immune editing. DuPage et al . demonstrate that immunosurveillance and immunoediting can occur in an oncogene-driven endogenous tumour model provided that the tumours carry strong neoantigens that are not present in the host.
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