《自然》 目錄

Volume 555 Number 7696


AI diagnostics need attention p.285

Computer algorithms to detect disease show great promise, but they must be developed and applied with care.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03067-x



News Features

News & Views

Oxidation softens mantle rocks p.314

Seismic waves that propagate through a layer of Earth’s upper mantle are highly attenuated. Contrary to general thinking, this attenuation seems to be strongly affected by oxidation conditions, rather than by water content.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02828-y


Questioning human neurogenesis p.315

Neurons are born in the brain’s hippocampus throughout adulthood in mammals, contributing to the region’s functions in memory and mood. But a study now questions whether this phenomenon really extends to humans.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02629-3


Landscapes of childhood tumours p.316

Two analyses of the genetic alterations that characterize paediatric cancers reveal key differences from adult cancers, and point to ways of optimizing therapeutic approaches to combating cancer in children.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01648-4


Waves cornered p.318

The experimental discovery of materials known as higher-order topological insulators corroborates theoretical predictions and expands the toolbox for integrated optics and mechanical devices.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02868-4


Melanin triggers antifungal defences p.319

Melanins are enigmatic pigments that have many roles, and the melanin in pathogenic fungi can aid host infection. Identification of a mammalian protein that recognizes melanin now reveals an antifungal defence pathway.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02370-x



The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers OPEN p.321

Analyses of genomes from 914 children, adolescents, and young adults provide a comprehensive resource of genomic alterations across a spectrum of common childhood cancers.

Susanne N. Gröbner, Barbara C. Worst, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Ivo Buchhalter, Kortine Kleinheinz, Vasilisa A. Rudneva, Pascal D. Johann, Gnana Prakash Balasubramanian, Maia Segura-Wang, Sebastian Brabetz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25480

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The atomic structure of a eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase complex p.328

The high-resolution structure of the entire eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase complex is determined, revealing the role of membrane lipids in mediating inter-subunit interactions, and the mechanism by which the complex enables protein N-glycosylation.

Lin Bai, Tong Wang, Gongpu Zhao, Amanda Kovach & Huilin Li

doi: 10.1038/nature25755

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Two chemically similar stellar overdensities on opposite sides of the plane of the Galactic disk p.334

Fourteen stars from stellar overdensities above and below the Galactic disk have the same elemental abundances as disk stars, suggesting that these stars originated in the disk, perhaps being removed during interaction with passing dwarf galaxies.

Maria Bergemann, Branimir Sesar, Judith G. Cohen, Aldo M. Serenelli, Allyson Sheffield, Ting S. Li, Luca Casagrande, Kathryn V. Johnston, Chervin F. P. Laporte, Adrian M. Price-Whelan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25490

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Observation of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator p.342

A two-dimensional phononic quadrupole topological insulator is demonstrated experimentally using mechanical metamaterials, which has both the one-dimensional edge states and the zero-dimensional corner states predicted by theory.

Marc Serra-Garcia, Valerio Peri, Roman Süsstrunk, Osama R. Bilal, Tom Larsen, Luis Guillermo Villanueva & Sebastian D. Huber

doi: 10.1038/nature25156

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High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a solid-state spin sensor p.351

High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the scale of single cells is achieved by combining a magnetometer consisting of an ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres with a narrowband synchronized readout protocol.

David R. Glenn, Dominik B. Bucher, Junghyun Lee, Mikhail D. Lukin, Hongkun Park & Ronald L. Walsworth

doi: 10.1038/nature25781

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Redox-influenced seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine p.355

Redox conditions and associated defect chemistry rather than water content, as previously thought, strongly influence the seismic properties of olivine, the main constituent mineral of Earth’s upper mantle.

C. J. Cline, U. H. Faul, E. C. David, A. J. Berry & I. Jackson

doi: 10.1038/nature25764

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Altruism in a volatile world p.359

A derivation of Hamilton’s rule that considers explicit environmental stochasticity can predict when organisms should pay a cost to influence the variance in the reproductive success of their relatives, formalizing the link between bet-hedging and altruism.

Patrick Kennedy, Andrew D. Higginson, Andrew N. Radford & Seirian Sumner

doi: 10.1038/nature25965

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Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers p.363

Millions of Chinese smallholder farmers were persuaded to adopt enhanced management practices, which led to a greater yield, reduced nitrogen fertilizer use and improved environmental performance throughout China.

Zhenling Cui, Hongyan Zhang, Xinping Chen, Chaochun Zhang, Wenqi Ma, Chengdong Huang, Weifeng Zhang, Guohua Mi, Yuxin Miao, Xiaolin Li + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25785

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Pan-cancer genome and transcriptome analyses of 1,699 paediatric leukaemias and solid tumours OPEN p.371

Analysis of the genomes, exomes and transcriptomes of 1,699 childhood cancers identifies 142 driver genes.

Xiaotu Ma, Yu Liu, Yanling Liu, Ludmil B. Alexandrov, Michael N. Edmonson, Charles Gawad, Xin Zhou, Yongjin Li, Michael C. Rusch, John Easton + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25795

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Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults p.377

Recruitment of young neurons to the hippocampus decreases rapidly during the first years of life, and neurogenesis does not continue, or is extremely rare, in the adult human brain.

Shawn F. Sorrells, Mercedes F. Paredes, Arantxa Cebrian-Silla, Kadellyn Sandoval, Dashi Qi, Kevin W. Kelley, David James, Simone Mayer, Julia Chang, Kurtis I. Auguste + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25975

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Recognition of DHN-melanin by a C-type lectin receptor is required for immunity to Aspergillus p.382

The C-type lectin receptor MelLec recognizes DHN-melanin in conidial spores of Aspergillus fumigatus and other DHN-melanized fungi, revealing an important role for this receptor in antifungal immunity in both mice and humans.

Mark H. T. Stappers, Alexandra E. Clark, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Stefan Bidula, Delyth M. Reid, Patawee Asamaphan, Sarah E. Hardison, Ivy M. Dambuza, Isabel Valsecchi, Bernhard Kerscher + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25974

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EWS–FLI1 increases transcription to cause R-loops and block BRCA1 repair in Ewing sarcoma p.387

The EWS–FLI1 fusion protein, expressed in Ewing sarcoma, increases global transcription, causes accumulation of R loops and replication stress, and impairs BRCA1-mediated repair.

Aparna Gorthi, July Carolina Romero, Eva Loranc, Lin Cao, Liesl A. Lawrence, Elicia Goodale, Amanda Balboni Iniguez, Xavier Bernard, V. Pragathi Masamsetti, Sydney Roston + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25748

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Epigenetic reprogramming enables the transition from primordial germ cell to gonocyte p.392

Gonadal germline epigenetic reprogramming involves an interplay between DNA methylation, the polycomb complex and Tet1 in both DNA methylation dependent and independent roles, to ensure the activation of a specific subset of genes critical for progression of gametogenesis.

Peter W. S. Hill, Harry G. Leitch, Cristina E. Requena, Zhiyi Sun, Rachel Amouroux, Monica Roman-Trufero, Malgorzata Borkowska, Jolyon Terragni, Romualdas Vaisvila, Sarah Linnett + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25964

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Gating mechanisms of acid-sensing ion channels p.397

X-ray and cryo-electron microscopy structures of the acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1a reveal the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and desensitization.

Nate Yoder, Craig Yoshioka & Eric Gouaux

doi: 10.1038/nature25782

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