The Universe’s flash machines have proven their scientific value.
New tools for exploring the individual characteristics of cells are attracting researchers from other disciplines.
The geopolitical crisis in the Middle East highlights the vulnerability of supplies of an essential research resource.
Large projects explore how to integrate data from smart devices with other health metrics.
Experts say effective response to the outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo helped prevent the virus from spreading.
Conservationists fear trend of selling wild-caught birds will hurt populations.
Researchers braced for shortages as Gulf state forced to close its refineries.
Influential report suggests simpler, more citizen-friendly system for post-2020 EU research funding.
Analyses of life's most basic elements promise to improve therapies and provide insights into some of the most fundamental processes in biology.
Scientists are striving for a deeper view of development, from embryo to adult, cell-by-cell.
Aviv Regev is a maven of hard-core biological analyses. Now she is part of an effort to map every cell in the human body.
News & Views
DNA is packaged in the cell as chromatin, which folds into organized domains. Mapping of chromatin contacts in single cells sheds light on the dynamic evolution of these domains between cell divisions. See Article p.61
Microscopic fossils show that, from 10,400 to 7,500 years ago, upwelling of a water mass called Circumpolar Deep Water destabilized Antarctic ice shelves — a finding that advances our understanding of ice-sheet retreat. See Article p.43
The binding of T-cell receptors to peptide molecules not normally present in the body can trigger an immune response. Predicting which peptide a T-cell receptor will bind to — a difficult feat — has now been achieved. See Letters p.89 & p.94
Integrated circuits usually have only one layer of electronic devices, which limits their performance and functionality. A 3D integrated circuit that incorporates multiple device layers enables a wealth of applications. See Letter p.74
An analysis of 360 breast-cancer genomes has identified cancer-driving mutations in 9 non-coding DNA sequences called promoters, which regulate gene expression. The result hints at the prevalence of non-coding drivers. See Article p.55
High-mass stars often pair up to form binary systems. Observations reveal that the stars in such systems are born farther apart than was formerly thought, casting fresh light on an enduring debate about star formation.
During the early Holocene epoch—and since the 1940s—variations in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds controlled the upwelling of Circumpolar Deep Water and seemingly ice-sheet retreat in West Antarctica.
Permanently ice-free areas, home to almost all of Antarctica’s biodiversity, are projected, in the worst case, to expand by over 17,000 km2 as a result of climate change by the end of this century, with potentially deleterious consequences for the continent’s biodiversity.
High-depth sequencing of targeted regions in primary breast cancer identifies mutated promoter elements with recurrent mutations at specific and/or nearby bases, suggesting selection of certain non-coding events.
Single-cell Hi-C analysis in thousands of mouse embryonic stem cells shows that chromosomal compartments, topological-associated domains and long-range loops all have distinct cell-cycle dynamics.
Single-molecule FRET imaging provides insights into the allosteric link between the ligand-binding and G-protein nucleotide-binding pockets of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and improved understanding of the G-protein activation mechanism.
Multiple nanotechnologies are integrated on a single chip to realize a three-dimensional integrated circuit architecture that combines computing and data storage—a potentially transformative advance in computing.
The functionalization of carbon–hydrogen (C–H) bonds is one of the most attractive strategies for molecular construction in organic chemistry. The hydrogen atom is considered to be an ideal coupling handle, owing to its relative abundance in organic molecules and its availability for functionalization at almost any stage in a synthetic sequence. Although many C–H functionalization reactions involve C(sp3)–C(sp2) coupling, there is a growing demand for C–H alkylation reactions, wherein sp3 C–H bonds are replaced with sp3 C–alkyl groups. Here we describe a polarity-match-based selective sp3 C–H alkylation via the combination of photoredox, nickel and hydrogen-atom transfer catalysis. This methodology simultaneously uses three catalytic cycles to achieve hydridic C–H bond abstraction (enabled by polarity matching), alkyl halide oxidative addition, and reductive elimination to enable alkyl–alkyl fragment coupling. The sp3 C–H alkylation is highly selective for the α-C–H of amines, ethers and sulphides, which are commonly found in pharmaceutically relevant architectures. This cross-coupling protocol should enable broad synthetic applications in de novo synthesis and late-stage functionalization chemistry.
GPS measurements are used to investigate the continental rift system of North Island, New Zealand, and to develop a model for short-term deformation involving flexing of an elastic upper crust caused by episodic changes in mantle viscosity and melt fraction.
The authors characterize epitope-specific T cell repertoires, identify shared and recognizable features of TCRs, and develop tools to classify antigen specificity on the basis of sequence analysis.
The authors devise an algorithm that can cluster T cell receptor (TCR) sequences sharing the same specificity, predict the HLA restriction of these TCR clusters on the basis of subjects’ genotypes and help to identify specific peptide major histocompatibility complex ligands.
Chemotherapy drugs can cause pyroptotic cell death by activating caspase-3 to cleave gasdermin E, potentially contributing to their toxicity and adverse effects.
Identification of the cell types from which relapse arises in acute myeloid leukaemia, by following leukaemia propagation from patient-derived leukaemia samples.
mTOR complex 1 signalling regulates polyamine metabolism and thereby promotes tumorigenesis, through regulation of the stability of a key enzyme, AMD1.
RNase III from all three domains of life elicits RNA-targeting antiviral activity that is independent of, and possibly predates, other known eukaryotic antiviral systems.
Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy analysis of the mechanotransduction channel NOMPC reveals that it contains a bundle of four helical spring-shaped ankyrin repeat domains that undergo motion, potentially allowing mechanical movement of the cytoskeleton to be coupled to the opening of the channel.