And not only because she is not Donald Trump.
Capuchin monkeys have been observed smashing stones to produce flakes — but why they do so remains a mystery.
A neuroscience initiative is boosting the number of female invited speakers at meetings. Other disciplines should do the same.
Two former workers say that they were treated unfairly on the basis of age and disability.
Science policy fades into background for many who back Republican candidate in US presidential race.
Chairman Lamar Smith has turned once-placid panel into investigative powerhouse.
Breakthrough raises call for debate over prospect of artificial human eggs.
Uncertain government funding drives effort to beef up private support for research.
Five years in, the US EarthCube programme has struggled to deliver on its promises.
This year’s US presidential election is the toughest test yet for political polls as experts struggle to keep up with changing demographics and technology.
Scientists are beginning to understand why these ‘mini Wall Streets’ work so well at forecasting election results — and how they sometimes fail.
News & Views
A whole-genome duplication that occurred around 34 million years ago in the frog Xenopus laevis made generating a genome sequence for this valuable model organism a challenge. This obstacle has finally been overcome. See Article p.336
Two sources of highly energetic flares have been discovered in archival X-ray data of 70 nearby galaxies. These flares have an undetermined origin and might represent previously unknown astrophysical phenomena. See Letter p.356
Heat-shock proteins have been found to form part of a large protein complex, called the epichaperome, that improves the survival of some cancer cells. This complex might offer a new target for cancer treatment. See Letter p.397
A molecule selected from a library of compounds that have structures similar to natural products targets several stages of the malarial parasite's life cycle, offering single-dose treatment of the disease in mouse models. See Article p.344
A link has been established between high-frequency light emissions and electron oscillations induced in an insulator by a laser. This is a key step in efforts to make electronic devices that work faster than is currently possible. See Letter p.359
Live-cell imaging reveals that a functional interaction occurs between two different organelles: contact between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria is needed for mitochondrial DNA replication and division.
Computational methods for the de novo design of conformationally restricted peptides produce exceptionally stable short peptides stabilized by backbone cyclization and/or internal disulfide bonds that are promising starting points for a new generation of peptide-based drugs.
The two homoeologous subgenomes in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis evolved asymmetrically; one often retained the ancestral state, whereas the other experienced gene loss, deletion, rearrangement and reduced gene expression.
The bicyclic azetidines, a class of potent, well-tolerated antimalarial compounds that is active against multiple stages of the Plasmodium life-cycle, has been discovered following screens against libraries of compounds reminiscent of natural products.
Here, a genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screen is used to identify the Wnt receptors frizzled as physiologically relevant Clostridium difficile toxin B receptors, providing new therapeutic targets for treating C. difficile infections.
A search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies yielded two flaring sources in globular clusters or ultracompact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies.
Investigations using single-cycle intense optical fields to drive electron motion in bulk silicon dioxide show that the light-induced electric currents extend in frequency up to about 8 petahertz.
Scanning tunnelling microscopy is shown to be effective for probing energy transfer in a molecular dimer with submolecular resolution in real space.
Analysis of the postseismic deformation of the moment magnitude 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake in 2012 reveals that the asthenospheric layer must be thin and of low viscosity, constraining the structure of oceanic upper-mantle rheology.
Postseismic recordings of the moment magnitude 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake of 2012, combined with the characteristics of olivine creep, provide constraints on the water content of the asthenosphere.
Pancreatic cancer is not caused by a specific series of genetic alterations that occur sequentially but by one, or few, catastrophic events that result in simultaneous oncogenic genetic rearrangements, giving rise to highly aggressive tumours.
The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision. The OKR is plastic, allowing the amplitude of this reflex to be adaptively adjusted relative to other oculomotor reflexes and thereby ensuring image stability throughout life. Although the plasticity of the OKR is thought to involve subcortical structures such as the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, cortical lesions have suggested that the visual cortex might also be involved. Here we show that projections from the mouse visual cortex to the accessory optic system promote the adaptive plasticity of the OKR. OKR potentiation, a compensatory plastic increase in the amplitude of the OKR in response to vestibular impairment, is diminished by silencing visual cortex. Furthermore, targeted ablation of a sparse population of cortico-fugal neurons that specifically project to the accessory optic system severely impairs OKR potentiation. Finally, OKR potentiation results from an enhanced drive exerted by the visual cortex onto the accessory optic system. Thus, cortico-fugal projections to the brainstem enable the visual cortex, an area that has been principally studied for its sensory processing function, to plastically adapt the execution of innate motor behaviours.
Allogenic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes transplanted directly into infarcted cynomolgus monkey hearts show electrical coupling with host cardiomyocytes improve cardiac contractile function after mild immunosuppression.
PLVAP selectively controls the seeding of fetal liver monocyte-derived tissue-resident macrophages, seemingly by interacting with chemotactic and adhesive molecules at the diaphragms of liver sinusoidal endothelium.
Chaperomes are dynamic assemblies of proteins that regulate cellular homeostasis but specific cellular stresses remodel chaperome components into a stable chaperome network called the epichaperome, which might offer a new cancer target.
The structures of the deubiquitinating enzyme Cezanne alone or in complex with its substrate or product are solved, showing how Cezanne specifically targets Lys11-linked polyubiquitin.
The atomic structure of ovine mitochondrial complex I is solved at 3.9 Å resolution, revealing that supernumerary subunits stabilize the complex and providing insight into the molecular basis of its function and regulation.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast chemical neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction and have diverse signalling roles in the central nervous system. The nicotinic receptor has been a model system for cell-surface receptors, and specifically for ligand-gated ion channels, for well over a century. In addition to the receptors’ prominent roles in the development of the fields of pharmacology and neurobiology, nicotinic receptors are important therapeutic targets for neuromuscular disease, addiction, epilepsy and for neuromuscular blocking agents used during surgery. The overall architecture of the receptor was described in landmark studies of the nicotinic receptor isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. Structures of a soluble ligand-binding domain have provided atomic-scale insights into receptor–ligand interactions, while high-resolution structures of other members of the pentameric receptor superfamily provide touchstones for an emerging allosteric gating mechanism. All available high-resolution structures are of homopentameric receptors. However, the vast majority of pentameric receptors (called Cys-loop receptors in eukaryotes) present physiologically are heteromeric. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the human α4β2 nicotinic receptor, the most abundant nicotinic subtype in the brain. This structure provides insights into the architectural principles governing ligand recognition, heteromer assembly, ion permeation and desensitization in this prototypical receptor class.