Volume 533 Issue 7604



A survey of Nature readers revealed a high level of concern about the problem of irreproducible results. Researchers, funders and journals need to work together to make research more reliable.

doi: 10.1038/533437a


Geneticists and historians need to work together on using DNA to explore the past.

doi: 10.1038/533437b


Overtime pay for postdoctoral scientists is welcome — but could mean fewer positions.

doi: 10.1038/533438a



Technique to stop children inheriting mitochondrial diseases has potential to backfire.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19948


Space agencies envisage system of probes to track whether countries are achieving emissions goals.

doi: 10.1038/533446a


Two blueprints emerge from centre tasked with creating a practical quantum device.

doi: 10.1038/533448a


Complaint to US government alleges that diagnostics company violated individuals' right to access health information.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19953


Biotech firm seeks government approval to market mosquitoes as a pesticide to prevent spread of Zika and dengue viruses.

doi: 10.1038/533450a


Labour law will change how many postdocs — long a troubled segment of the US research hierarchy — are paid.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19949

News Features


Survey sheds light on the ‘crisis’ rocking research.

doi: 10.1038/533452a


By scouring the remains of early loos and sewers, archaeologists are finding clues to what life was like in the Roman world and in other civilizations.

doi: 10.1038/533456a

News & Views


Both nuclear genes and genes in organelles called mitochondria are involved in the assembly of the cellular energy-producing machinery. RNA-translation programs that coordinate the two systems have now been identified. See Article p.499

doi: 10.1038/nature18436


Supermassive black holes are thought to keep star formation under control by ejecting or stirring gas in galaxies. Observations of an old galaxy reveal a potential mechanism for how this process occurs. See Letter p.504

doi: 10.1038/533473a


Caspase enzymes promote cell death, but are also involved in sperm development in fruit flies. The discovery that, in sperm, caspase activation is restricted to the surface of organelles called mitochondria sheds light on this unusual role.

doi: 10.1038/nature18439


doi: 10.1038/533476a


The way in which ketamine exerts its antidepressant effects has been perplexing. Evidence that a metabolite of the drug is responsible, and acts on a different target from ketamine, might be the key to an answer. See Article p.481

doi: 10.1038/nature17897


Three studies find that a family of organic compounds affects the formation and initial growth of atmospheric aerosol particles in clean air — with implications for our knowledge of the climate effects of aerosols. See Letters p.521 & 527

doi: 10.1038/533478a



The metabolism of ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and the (2R,6R)-HNK enantiomer lacks ketamine-related side effects but exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant actions in mice; these antidepressant effects are independent of NMDAR inhibition but require AMPAR activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature17998


Successful identification of mouse embryonic pre-haematopoietic stem cells at single-cell resolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature17997


A heterotypic cell interaction between astrocytes and tumour cells colonizing the brain is discovered; by establishing gap junctions, tumour cells trigger the activation of innate immune response signalling in astrocytes, which results in the secretion of factors that support growth and chemoresistance in brain metastatic cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature18268


The genes encoding the subunits of oxidative phosphorylation complexes are split between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but their translation is synchronized by signalling from the cytosol to the mitochondria.

doi: 10.1038/nature18015



In order for quiescent galaxies to maintain their low-to-non-existent star formation, there must be a mechanism to remove or heat gas that would otherwise cool to form stars; now supermassive black hole winds that are sufficient to suppress star formation in such galaxies are reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature18006


Transit timing variations of the four-planet system Kepler-223 are used to compute the long-term stability of the system, which has a chain of resonances; the results suggest that inward planetary migration, rather than in situ assembly, is responsible for the formation of some close-in sub-Neptune systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17445


Coupling a ferromagnetic insulator to a topological insulator induces a robust magnetic state at the interface, resulting from the large spin-orbit interaction and the spin-momentum locking property of Dirac fermions, and leads to an extraordinary enhancement of the magnetic ordering (Curie) temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature17635


Combining cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy with buffer gas cooling enables rapid collection of well-resolved infrared spectra for molecules such as nitromethane, naphthalene and adamantane, confirming the value of the combined approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature17440


Aerosol particles can form in the atmosphere by nucleation of highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid, with ions from Galactic cosmic rays increasing the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17953


The growth of nucleated organic particles has been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments under atmospheric conditions; initial growth is driven by organic vapours of extremely low volatility, and accelerated by more abundant vapours of slightly higher volatility, leading to markedly different modelled concentrations of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei when this growth mechanism is taken into account.

doi: 10.1038/nature18271


In wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake.

doi: 10.1038/nature17986


The ‘big-sperm paradox’, the observed production of few, gigantic sperm by some fruit flies (seemingly at odds with fundamental theory addressing how sexual selection works) is shown to be a result of co-evolution driven by genetic and functional relationships between sperm length, design of the female reproductive tract and features of the mating system.

doi: 10.1038/nature18005


A genome-wide association study in 293,723 individuals identifies 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, which, although only explaining a small proportion of the variation in educational attainment, highlights candidate genes and pathways for further study.

doi: 10.1038/nature17671


A novel approach is used to cultivate a substantial proportion of the human gut microbiota, representing an important step forward in characterizing the role of these bacteria in health and disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature17645


The prostate cancer drug abiraterone can be metabolized into several substances with different effects, and optimization of this process could be helpful for fine-tuning the treatment of prostate cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature17954


Interferon-γ-secreting CD4+ helper T cells are required for antibody access to neuronal tissues in response to neurotropic virus infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature17979


The crystal structure of the MraY enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus in complex with the naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitor muraymycin D2 (MD2) reveals that MraY undergoes a large conformational rearrangement near the active site after the binding of MD2, leading to the generation of a nucleoside-binding pocket and a peptide-binding site.

doi: 10.1038/nature17636


The X-ray structure of human ABCG5/ABCG8 heterodimer in a nucleotide-free state, being the first atomic model of an ABC sterol transporter.

doi: 10.1038/nature17666