네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

In praise of parks p.437

Our affection for national parks is well founded, but many more areas need protection.

doi: 10.1038/529437b

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Digital intuition p.437

A computer program that can outplay humans in the abstract game of Go will redefine our relationship with machines.

doi: 10.1038/529437a

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Found out p.438

Self-doubt is a pernicious affliction that can overwhelm researchers.

doi: 10.1038/529438a

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News

News Features

Slaughter of the song birds p.452

Songbirds are a culinary delicacy in Cyprus — but catching and eating them is illegal. Even so, the practice is on the rise and could be threatening rare species.

Shaoni Bhattacharya

doi: 10.1038/529452a

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News & Views

The domestication of Cas9 p.468

The enzyme Cas9 is used in genome editing to cut selected DNA sequences, but it also creates breaks at off-target sites. Protein engineering has now been used to make Cas9 enzymes that have minimal off-target effects. See Article p.490

Fyodor Urnov

doi: 10.1038/529468a

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Fluorescent boost for voltage sensors p.469

The development of a voltage sensor in which a microbial rhodopsin protein is fused with a fluorescent protein enables the neuronal activity of single cells in live animals to be measured with unprecedented speed and accuracy.

Viviana Gradinaru & Nicholas C. Flytzanis

doi: 10.1038/529469a

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A lizard that generates heat p.470

Birds and mammals generate heat to regulate body temperature, but most non-avian reptiles cannot. The discovery of endothermy during the reproductive period of a tegu lizard sheds light on the evolution of this characteristic.

Colleen G. Farmer

doi: 10.1038/529470a

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Small RNA with a large impact p.472

A simultaneous comparison of the RNA molecules expressed by Salmonella bacteria and human cells during infection reveals how a bacterial small RNA alters the transcript profiles of both the bacteria and the host cells. See Article p.496

Matthias P. Machner & Gisela Storz

doi: 10.1038/nature16872

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The mystery of globular clusters p.473

The discovery of multiple stellar populations — formed at different times — in several young star clusters adds to the debate on the nature and origin of such populations in globular clusters from the early Universe. See Letter p.502

Antonella Nota & Corinne Charbonnel

doi: 10.1038/529473a

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A mechanism for myelin injury p.474

The cells that insulate neuronal processes with a myelin membrane sheath are damaged during stroke. Data now show that an influx of calcium ions mediated by the TRPA1 protein contributes to myelin injury. See Letter p.523

Aiman S. Saab & Klaus-Armin Nave

doi: 10.1038/nature16865

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Technological leap for sweat sensing p.475

Sweat analysis is an ideal method for continuously tracking a person's physiological state, but developing devices for this is difficult. A wearable sweat monitor that measures several biomarkers is a breakthrough. See Letter p.509

Jason Heikenfeld

doi: 10.1038/529475a

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Perspective

Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets p.477

Targets for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide are related to regional changes in climate extremes rather than to changes in global mean temperature, in order to convey their urgency better to individual countries.

Sonia I. Seneviratne, Markus G. Donat, Andy J. Pitman, Reto Knutti & Robert L. Wilby

doi: 10.1038/nature16542

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Articles

Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search p.484

A computer Go program based on deep neural networks defeats a human professional player to achieve one of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence.

David Silver, Aja Huang, Chris J. Maddison, Arthur Guez, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Veda Panneershelvam, Marc Lanctot + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16961

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Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host–pathogen interactions p.496

Using dual RNA-seq technology to profile RNA expression simultaneously in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella and its host during infection reveals molecular phenotypes of small noncoding RNAs in the infection process.

Alexander J. Westermann, Konrad U. Förstner, Fabian Amman, Lars Barquist, Yanjie Chao, Leon N. Schulte, Lydia Müller, Richard Reinhardt, Peter F. Stadler & Jörg Vogel

doi: 10.1038/nature16547

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Letters

Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters p.502

Three massive star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era; such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars while orbiting in their host galaxies’ gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial and more recent bursts of star formation.

Chengyuan Li, Richard de Grijs, Licai Deng, Aaron M. Geller, Yu Xin, Yi Hu & Claude-André Faucher-Giguère

doi: 10.1038/nature16493

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Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms p.505

Quantum entanglement is thought to offer great promise for improving measurement precision; now a spin-squeezing implementation with cold atoms offers levels of sensitivity unavailable with any competing conventional method, sensing microwave induced rotations a factor of 70 beyond the standard quantum limit.

Onur Hosten, Nils J. Engelsen, Rajiv Krishnakumar & Mark A. Kasevich

doi: 10.1038/nature16176

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Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis p.509

By merging plastic-based skin sensors with silicon integrated circuits, a flexible, wearable perspiration analysis system is presented that measures skin temperature and the metabolites and electrolytes in human sweat and analyses the information in situ.

Wei Gao, Sam Emaminejad, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Samyuktha Challa, Kevin Chen, Austin Peck, Hossain M. Fahad, Hiroki Ota, Hiroshi Shiraki, Daisuke Kiriya + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16521

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Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures p.515

Here we report a lithium-ion all-climate battery that very efficiently heats itself up in extremely cold environments by diverting current through a strip of metal foil to generate heat of resistance and then reverts to normal high-power operation.

Chao-Yang Wang, Guangsheng Zhang, Shanhai Ge, Terrence Xu, Yan Ji, Xiao-Guang Yang & Yongjun Leng

doi: 10.1038/nature16502

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No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age p.519

Core isotope measurements in the equatorial Pacific Ocean reveal that although atmospheric dust deposition during the last ice age was higher than today’s, the productivity of the equatorial Pacific Ocean did not increase; this may have been because iron-enabled greater nutrient consumption, mainly in the Southern Ocean, reduced the nutrients available in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and hence also productivity there.

K. M. Costa, J. F. McManus, R. F. Anderson, H. Ren, D. M. Sigman, G. Winckler, M. Q. Fleisher, F. Marcantonio & A. C. Ravelo

doi: 10.1038/nature16453

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Proton-gated Ca2+-permeable TRP channels damage myelin in conditions mimicking ischaemia p.523

The myelin sheaths wrapped around axons by oligodendrocytes are crucial for brain function. In ischaemia myelin is damaged in a Ca2+-dependent manner, abolishing action potential propagation. This has been attributed to glutamate release activating Ca2+-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Surprisingly, we now show that NMDA does not raise the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in mature oligodendrocytes and that, although ischaemia evokes a glutamate-triggered membrane current, this is generated by a rise of extracellular [K+] and decrease of membrane K+ conductance. Nevertheless, ischaemia raises oligodendrocyte [Ca2+]i, [Mg2+]i and [H+]i, and buffering intracellular pH reduces the [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i increases, showing that these are evoked by the rise of [H+]i. The H+-gated [Ca2+]i elevation is mediated by channels with characteristics of TRPA1, being inhibited by ruthenium red, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, HC-030031, A967079 or TRPA1 knockout. TRPA1 block reduces myelin damage in ischaemia. These data suggest that TRPA1-containing ion channels could be a therapeutic target in white matter ischaemia.

Nicola B. Hamilton, Karolina Kolodziejczyk, Eleni Kougioumtzidou & David Attwell

doi: 10.1038/nature16519

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Mitofusin 2 maintains haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid potential p.528

The role of mitochondria in haematopoietic stem-cell maintenance has not been examined in detail; here mitofusin 2, which modulates mitochondrial fusion and tethering of endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria, is shown to be necessary for the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid potential.

Larry L. Luchsinger, Mariana Justino de Almeida, David J. Corrigan, Melanie Mumau & Hans-Willem Snoeck

doi: 10.1038/nature16500

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Graded Foxo1 activity in Treg cells differentiates tumour immunity from spontaneous autoimmunity p.532

The transcription factor Foxo1 is shown to be involved in the determination of distinct subsets of regulatory T (Treg) cells, and the differentiation of activated phenotype Treg cells is associated with the repression of the Foxo1-dependent transcriptional program; constitutively active Foxo1 expression triggers depletion of activated Treg cells in peripheral tissues and leads to CD8 T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity.

Chong T. Luo, Will Liao, Saida Dadi, Ahmed Toure & Ming O. Li

doi: 10.1038/nature16486

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A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the TAP transporter p.537

Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumour cells depends on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I molecules, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumour development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies either to downregulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. So far, neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. Here we show that the 12 transmembrane helices and 2 cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two nucleotide-binding domains separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and prevents nucleotide-binding domain closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the endoplasmic reticulum, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host.

Michael L. Oldham, Richard K. Hite, Alanna M. Steffen, Ermelinda Damko, Zongli Li, Thomas Walz & Jue Chen

doi: 10.1038/nature16506

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Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53 p.541

Structural details of how oncogenic human papilloma viruses induce cancer by targeting the tumour suppressor p53 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

Denise Martinez-Zapien, Francesc Xavier Ruiz, Juline Poirson, André Mitschler, Juan Ramirez, Anne Forster, Alexandra Cousido-Siah, Murielle Masson, Scott Vande Pol, Alberto Podjarny + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature16481

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Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism and regulation p.546

The first structure of fully active HOIP of the RBR family of RING-type E3 ligases in its transfer complex with an E2~ubiquitin conjugate provides insights into its mechanism of action, including the ideal alignment of the E2 and E3 catalytic centres for ubiquitin transfer and the allosteric regulation of the RBR family.

Bernhard C. Lechtenberg, Akhil Rajput, Ruslan Sanishvili, Małgorzata K. Dobaczewska, Carl F. Ware, Peter D. Mace & Stefan J. Riedl

doi: 10.1038/nature16511

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Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II p.551

The first high-resolution, cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian RNA polymerase II, in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript.

Carrie Bernecky, Franz Herzog, Wolfgang Baumeister, Jürgen M. Plitzko & Patrick Cramer

doi: 10.1038/nature16482

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