Volume 527 Issue 7578


Research for all p.275

Numbers on racial bias in research grants awarded by the US National Institutes of Health show that science has more to learn about inclusiveness.

doi: 10.1038/527275a

Defensive drives p.275

Researchers exploring ways to genetically alter wild populations are wise to air their plans.

doi: 10.1038/527275b

Dope rules p.276

Science is beside the point when an entrenched culture in a sport supports scoundrels.

doi: 10.1038/527276a


News Features

News & Views

Extra dimension for bone analysis p.308

A combination of two techniques — computed tomography and small-angle X-ray scattering — and serious computing power have enabled multi-scale, three-dimensional analysis of bone and tooth tissue. See Letters p.349 & p.353

doi: 10.1038/527308a

Homed to the hideout p.309

Some Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are thought to survive standard antibiotic treatment by 'hiding' in host cells. But an antibody–antibiotic conjugate has been developed that targets these bacteria in mouse models. See Article p.323

doi: 10.1038/nature15647

Growing planet brought to light p.310

Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered, but none is a planet in its infancy. Observations have finally been made of a young planet growing in its birthplace — opening the way to many more such discoveries. See Letter >p.342

doi: 10.1038/527310a

On the crest of becoming vertebrate p.311

The discovery of cells in an invertebrate that share several features with vertebrate neural-crest cells provides insights into how this vital vertebrate cell population might have evolved. See Letter p.371

doi: 10.1038/nature15645

Organ-seeking vesicles p.312

An analysis reveals that cancer cells remotely prepare distant sites for tumour spread in an organ-specific manner, by deploying organ-seeking extracellular vesicles. See Article p.329

doi: 10.1038/nature15642

Boost for movement p.314

By electrically stimulating the motor neurons of rats that have spinal-cord injury, in bursts that are attuned to the times at which the neurons receive voluntary motor commands, the animals' recovery can be improved.

doi: 10.1038/527314a

Ecosystem responses to climate extremes p.315

Extreme drought or wet conditions have now been found to strongly influence the vegetative development of ecosystems. Semi-arid regions are most affected — raising concerns about their vulnerability to long-term drought in the future.

doi: 10.1038/527315a


Novel antibody–antibiotic conjugate eliminates intracellular S. aureus p.323

Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, such as MRSA, are proving increasingly difficult to treat; here, one reason for this is confirmed to be the fact that S. aureus bacteria can reside in intracellular reservoirs where they are protected from antibiotics, but a new strategy—based on an antibody–antibiotic conjugate—can specifically target these reservoirs.

doi: 10.1038/nature16057

Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis p.329

Exosomes originating from lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells are preferentially incorporated by specific resident cells of the target organs, thus preparing the site for metastasis; the expression of distinct combinations of exosomal integrin proteins determines the exosomal targeting to each of the three organs, and blocking these integrins reduces organotropic exosome uptake by the target organs, thereby reducing the likelihood of organotropic metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15756

Gating machinery of InsP3R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy p.336

This study has determined the electron cryomicroscopy structure of the mammalian type 1 InsP3 receptor in a ligand-free state at 4.7 Å resolution; although the central Ca2+-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, the unique architecture of the C-terminal domains of the tetrameric channel suggests that a distinctive allosteric mechanism underlies the activation of InsP3 gating.

doi: 10.1038/nature15249


Accreting protoplanets in the LkCa 15 transition disk p.342

Transition disks are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation, with inner clearings explained by the influence of accreting planets, but attempts to observe directly accretion onto protoplanets have proven unsuccessful so far; here the authors detect infrared emission from multiple companions of the LkCa 15 system and Ha emission from the innermost (LkCa 15 b), showing hot (~10,000 K) gas falling deep into the potential well of an accreting protoplanet.

doi: 10.1038/nature15761

Measurement of interaction between antiprotons p.345

The interaction between antiprotons, produced by colliding high-energy gold ions, is shown to be attractive, and two important parameters of this interaction are measured, namely the scattering length and the effective range.

doi: 10.1038/nature15724

Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography p.353

A small-angle X-ray scattering computed tomography method that reduces the amount of data that needs to be collected and analysed to reconstruct the three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space of a three-dimensional sample in real space is demonstrated by measuring the orientation of collagen fibres within a human tooth.

doi: 10.1038/nature16060

North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming p.362

The processes responsible for driving the expansion of the ocean's oxygen minimum zones remain uncertain; here sediment core data from the Gulf of Alaska suggest that reduced oxygen solubility was a result of ocean warming initiating the expansion of the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone, leading to increased marine productivity and carbon export and, in turn, further reductions in dissolved oxygen levels.

doi: 10.1038/nature15753

The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration p.367

By quantifying the colouration of all approximately 6,000 species of passerine birds, certain life-history traits such as large body size and tropical distribution are found to increase ornamentation in both male and female birds, whereas cooperative breeding increases it in females only, and sexual selection diminishes it in females more than it increases it in males.

doi: 10.1038/nature15509