Volume 513 Issue 7517

Editorials

Ebola: time to act p.143

Governments and research organizations must mobilize to end the West African outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/513143b

Genetic rights and wrongs p.143

Australia’s decision to uphold a patent on biological material is in danger of hampering the development of diagnostic tests.

doi: 10.1038/513143a

Orbital assembly p.144

The space launch of a 3D printer does not herald a brave new era — but it is a good start.

doi: 10.1038/513144a

News

News Features

Survival of the fittest p.157

Using a wildlife version of fitness trackers, biologists can finally measure how much energy animals need to stay alive.

doi: 10.1038/513157a

Vision quest p.160

Technologies are allowing doctors to do what was once unheard of: restore blind people's sight. Now the real challenges begin.

doi: 10.1038/513160a

News & Views

Something to swing about p.174

The first gibbon genome to be sequenced provides clues about how genomes can be shuffled in short evolutionary time frames, and about how gibbons adapted and diversified in the jungles of southeast Asia. See Article p.195

doi: 10.1038/513174a

Bacteria get vaccinated p.175

Infection by defective bacterial viruses that cannot replicate has now been found to be the key feature enabling bacteria to rapidly develop adaptive immunity against functional viruses.

doi: 10.1038/513175a

No equatorial divide for a cleansing radical p.176

A constraint on the global distribution of the elusive hydroxyl radical takes us a step closer towards understanding the complex, interdependent factors that control the levels of this atmospheric cleanser. See Letter p.219

doi: 10.1038/513176a

The promise and perils of roads p.178

A global map of the potential economic benefits of roads together with the environmental damage they can inflict provides a planning tool for sustainable development. See Letter p.229

doi: 10.1038/nature13744

What goes down must come up p.179

A compilation of high-resolution measurements of ocean mixing collected over the past three decades reveals how deep ocean waters return to the surface — a process that helps to regulate Earth's climate.

doi: 10.1038/513179a

Sound processing takes motor control p.180

Neurons linking the brain region that controls movement to the region involved in auditory control have been found to suppress auditory responses when mice move, but the reason for this inhibition is unclear. See Article p.189

doi: 10.1038/nature13658

Quasar complexity simplified p.181

An analysis of a sample comprising some 20,000 mass-accreting supermassive black holes, known as quasars, shows that most of the diverse properties of these cosmic beacons are explained by only two quantities. See Letter p.210

doi: 10.1038/513181a

Articles

Assembly-line synthesis of organic molecules with tailored shapes p.183

The iterative, reagent-controlled homologation of a boronic ester is used to create an ‘assembly line’ capable of synthesizing organic molecules that contain ten contiguous, stereochemically defined methyl groups and which have different shapes depending on the stereochemistry of those groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature13711

A synaptic and circuit basis for corollary discharge in the auditory cortex p.189

Here auditory cortex excitatory neurons are shown to decrease their activity during locomotion, grooming and vocalization, and this decrease was paralleled by increased activity in inhibitory interneurons; these findings provide a circuit basis for how self-motion and external sensory signals can be integrated to potentially facilitate hearing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13724

Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes OPEN p.195

The genome of the gibbon, a tree-dwelling ape from Asia positioned between Old World monkeys and the great apes, is presented, providing insights into the evolutionary history of gibbon species and their accelerated karyotypes, as well as evidence for selection of genes such as those for forelimb development and connective tissue that may be important for locomotion through trees.

doi: 10.1038/nature13679

Letters

A major advance of tropical Andean glaciers during the Antarctic cold reversal p.224

A moraine chronology determined by surface exposure dating shows that glaciers in the northern tropical Andes expanded to a larger extent during the Antarctic cold reversal (14,500 to 12,900 years ago) than during the Younger Dryas stadial (12,800 to 11,500 years ago), contrary to previous studies; as a result, previous chronologies and climate interpretations from tropical glaciers may need to be revisited.

doi: 10.1038/nature13546

A global strategy for road building p.229

A global zoning scheme is proposed to limit the environmental costs of road building while maximizing its benefits for human development, by discriminating among areas where road building would have high environmental costs but relatively low agricultural advantage, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural production with relatively modest environmental costs, and ‘conflict areas’ where road building may have large agricultural benefits but also high environmental costs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13717

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase opposes renal carcinoma progression p.251

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is shown to be depleted in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and inhibits ccRCC progression by antagonizing glycolytic flux in renal tubular epithelial cells and by restraining cell proliferation, glycolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway in von Hippel–Lindau-protein-deficient ccRCC cells by blocking hypoxia-inducible factor function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13557

Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser p.261

Femtosecond X-ray pulses were used to obtain diffraction data on photosystem II, revealing conformational changes as the complex transitions from the dark S1 state to the double-pumped S3 state; the time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography technique enables structural determination of protein conformations that are highly prone to traditional radiation damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature13453