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A larger quantum alphabet p.602

Quantum objects that can hold more information than quantum bits have been generated and manipulated in an integrated photonic platform, paving the way for advanced protocols in quantum information processing. See Letter p.622

Roberto Osellame

doi: 10.1038/546602a

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Predictions of virus spillover across species p.603

Most human infectious diseases are initially transmitted from animals. An analysis of all known mammalian viruses improves our understanding of such cross-species spillover, with potential benefits for public health. See Letter p.646

James O. Lloyd-Smith

doi: 10.1038/nature23088

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A light-fuelled wave machine p.604

A polymer that incorporates liquid-crystal components generates continuous mechanical waves when lit by ultraviolet light, with potential applications for energy harvesting and self-cleaning surfaces. See Letter p.632

Yanlei Yu

doi: 10.1038/546604a

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Gut sensor halts viral attack p.606

Intestinal infection with rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in infants, and can be fatal. The identification of immune sensor proteins that detect and restrict this viral infection now illuminates the body's defence system. See Letter p.667

Pedro H. V. Saavedra & Mohamed Lamkanfi

doi: 10.1038/nature23090

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The fingerprints of reaction mechanisms p.608

Small changes to molecular structures can transform how reactions occur, but studying reaction mechanisms directly is difficult. An imaging technique that provides direct insights into competing mechanisms might improve matters.

Claire Vallance

doi: 10.1038/546608a

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Lymphatic detours for cancer p.609

Intestinal infection with rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in infants, and can be fatal. The identification of immune sensor proteins that detect and restrict this viral infection now illuminates the body's defence system. See Letter p.667

Ayuko Hoshino & David Lyden

doi: 10.1038/546609a

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Articles

Homeostatic circuits selectively gate food cue responses in insular cortex p.611

A combination of microprism-based cellular imaging to monitor insular cortex visual cue responses in behaving mice across hunger states with circuit mapping and manipulations reveals a neural basis for state-specific biased processing of motivationally relevant cues.

Yoav Livneh, Rohan N. Ramesh, Christian R. Burgess, Kirsten M. Levandowski, Joseph C. Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J. Goldey, Veronica E. Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M. Resch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22375

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Structure of a pre-catalytic spliceosome p.617

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the yeast spliceosome in a pre-catalytic state provides insights into the molecular events leading to formation of the spliceosome active site.

Clemens Plaschka, Pei-Chun Lin & Kiyoshi Nagai

doi: 10.1038/nature22799

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Letters

On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control p.622

The on-chip generation of high-dimensional frequency-entangled states and their spectral-domain manipulation are demonstrated, introducing a powerful and practical platform for quantum information processing.

Michael Kues, Christian Reimer, Piotr Roztocki, Luis Romero Cortés, Stefania Sciara, Benjamin Wetzel, Yanbing Zhang, Alfonso Cino, Sai T. Chu, Brent E. Little + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22986

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Observation of three-component fermions in the topological semimetal molybdenum phosphide p.627

A new type of fermion, corresponding to a three-fold degeneracy in the electronic band structure of crystalline molybdenum phosphide, is observed, which lies conceptually between Dirac and Weyl fermions.

B. Q. Lv, Z.-L. Feng, Q.-N. Xu, X. Gao, J.-Z. Ma, L.-Y. Kong, P. Richard, Y.-B. Huang, V. N. Strocov, C. Fang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22390

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Making waves in a photoactive polymer film p.632

Illumination of thin liquid-crystal polymer films that contain azobenzene derivatives with short thermal relaxation times induces a continuous wave motion throughout the films, owing to a feedback loop driven by material self-shadowing.

Anne Helene Gelebart, Dirk Jan Mulder, Michael Varga, Andrew Konya, Ghislaine Vantomme, E. W. Meijer, Robin L. B. Selinger & Dirk J. Broer

doi: 10.1038/nature22987

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Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation p.637

A phase-separation mechanism is proposed for the dominance of the surface tension effect over the solute effect in the observed activation of ultrafine cloud condensation nuclei.

Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Andreas Zuend, Ari Laaksonen, Kevin J. Sanchez, Greg Roberts, Darius Ceburnis, Stefano Decesari, Matteo Rinaldi, Natasha Hodas, Maria Cristina Facchini + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22806

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Hidden morphological diversity among early tetrapods p.642

Detailed micro-computed tomography analysis of the skull of Lethiscus stocki places it much earlier in the tetrapod lineage that was previously thought, showing that early tetrapods were more morphologically diverse than has been believed.

Jason D. Pardo, Matt Szostakiwskyj, Per E. Ahlberg & Jason S. Anderson

doi: 10.1038/nature22966

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Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals p.646

Analysis of a comprehensive database of mammalian host–virus relationships reveals that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable and that this enables identification of mammalian species and geographic locations where novel zoonoses are likely to be found.

Kevin J. Olival, Parviez R. Hosseini, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Noam Ross, Tiffany L. Bogich & Peter Daszak

doi: 10.1038/nature22975

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Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase p.651

The poxvirus vaccinia virus phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit RACK1, converting it to a plant-like state to favour translation of poxvirus mRNAs

Sujata Jha, Madeline G. Rollins, Gabriele Fuchs, Dean J. Procter, Elizabeth A. Hall, Kira Cozzolino, Peter Sarnow, Jeffrey N. Savas & Derek Walsh

doi: 10.1038/nature22814

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T cells from patients with Parkinson’s disease recognize α-synuclein peptides p.656

Epitopes derived from two regions of α-synuclein elicit immune responses in patients with Parkinson’s disease, involving IL-5-secreting CD4+ T cells, as well as IFNγ-secreting CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.

David Sulzer, Roy N. Alcalay, Francesca Garretti, Lucien Cote, Ellen Kanter, Julian Agin-Liebes, Christopher Liong, Curtis McMurtrey, William H. Hildebrand, Xiaobo Mao + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22815

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Human fetal dendritic cells promote prenatal T-cell immune suppression through arginase-2 p.662

Prenatal immune suppression is regulated by fetal arginase-2-expressing dendritic cells which respond normally to toll-like receptor stimulation but, in contrast to adult dendritic cells, induce regulatory T cells and repress TNF-α secretion by effector T cells.

Naomi McGovern, Amanda Shin, Gillian Low, Donovan Low, Kaibo Duan, Leong Jing Yao, Rasha Msallam, Ivy Low, Nurhidaya Binte Shadan, Hermi R Sumatoh + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22795

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Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells p.667

The inflammasome receptor Nlrp9b defends against enteric viruses by interacting with double-stranded viral RNA-bound helicase Dhx9, triggering gasdermin-D-dependent pyroptotic cell death of infected cells and secretion of Il-18.

Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah W. Palm, Yi Yang, Hua Yu, Hua-Bing Li, Geng Wang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22967

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ERF mutations reveal a balance of ETS factors controlling prostate oncogenesis p.671

In prostate cancer, the oncogenicity of transcription factor ERG is mediated, in part, by competition with another member of the ETS family, ERF.

Rohit Bose, Wouter R. Karthaus, Joshua Armenia, Wassim Abida, Phillip J. Iaquinta, Zeda Zhang, John Wongvipat, Elizabeth V. Wasmuth, Neel Shah, Patrick S. Sullivan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22820

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Whole-body imaging of lymphovascular niches identifies pre-metastatic roles of midkine p.676

Genetically engineered ‘lymphoreporter’ mouse strains are used to track melanoma dissemination in vivo, identifying midkine as a tumour-secreted factor that acts at a distance, preparing pre-metastatic niches and serving as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients.

David Olmeda, Daniela Cerezo-Wallis, Erica Riveiro-Falkenbach, Paula C. Pennacchi, Marta Contreras-Alcalde, Nuria Ibarz, Metehan Cifdaloz, Xavier Catena, Tonantzin G. Calvo, Estela Cañón + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22977

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