네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Adolescence research must grow up p.403

Young people get a raw deal from society. Targeted study and approaches as part of a new global effort are urgently needed to help them.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02185-w

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News

News Features

News & Views

Pruning hypothesis comes of age p.438

The idea that disrupted pruning of neuronal connections in the brain during adolescence is a cause of schizophrenia was proposed in 1983. This proved prescient, as subsequent imaging, genetic and molecular research has shown.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02053-7

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Molecules pressured to react p.468

Crystals have been made that undergo reactions when compressed. Computational simulations of these processes provide much-needed atomic-level insight into the mechanisms of mechanically induced reactions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02047-5

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Force-activated ion channels in close-up p.469

Piezo proteins allow cells to sense forces by letting ions pass through the cell membrane in response to mechanical stimuli. Three structures of a Piezo protein shed light on how this crucial process works.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01631-z

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An inflammatory transcriptional switch p.470

The mouse pancreas adopts a pre-inflammatory state in response to a chemical injury or the loss of one copy of the gene Nr5a2. This state might predispose mice, and possibly humans, to pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01262-4

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Neurons mimicked by electronics p.472

Electronic devices can currently emulate only basic functions of biological neurons. Devices called memtransistors could overcome this limitation and give rise to improvements in artificial-intelligence systems.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02025-x

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Analysis

Adolescence and the next generation OPEN p.458

Investing in adolescents as the parents of the next generation is important for the wellbeing of current and future generations.

George C. Patton, Craig A. Olsson, Vegard Skirbekk, Richard Saffery, Mary E. Wlodek, Peter S. Azzopardi, Marcin Stonawski, Bruce Rasmussen, Elizabeth Spry, Kate Francis + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25759

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Perspectives

Articles

A molecular atlas of cell types and zonation in the brain vasculature p.475

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the murine blood–brain barrier provides molecular definitions of the main vascular cell types, classifies perivascular cell types and sheds light on the organization of the arteriovenous axis.

Michael Vanlandewijck, Liqun He, Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Johanna Andrae, Koji Ando, Francesca Del Gaudio, Khayrun Nahar, Thibaud Lebouvier, Bàrbara Laviña, Leonor Gouveia + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25739

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Structure of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1 p.481

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of full-length mouse Piezo1 reveals six Piezo repeats, and 26 transmembrane helices per protomer, and shows that a kinked helical beam and anchor domain link the Piezo repeats to the pore and control gating allosterically.

Kei Saotome, Swetha E. Murthy, Jennifer M. Kefauver, Tess Whitwam, Ardem Patapoutian & Andrew B. Ward

doi: 10.1038/nature25453

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Structure and mechanogating mechanism of the Piezo1 channel p.487

The electron cryo-microscopy structure of full-length mouse Piezo1 reveals unique topological features such as the repetitive transmembrane helical units that constitute the highly curved transmembrane region, and identifies regions and single residues that are crucial for the mechanical activation of the channel.

Qiancheng Zhao, Heng Zhou, Shaopeng Chi, Yanfeng Wang, Jianhua Wang, Jie Geng, Kun Wu, Wenhao Liu, Tingxin Zhang, Meng-Qiu Dong + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25743

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Letters

Multi-terminal memtransistors from polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide p.500

Polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide is used to fabricate a multi-terminal device combining a memristor and a transistor, which can mimic biological neurons with multiple synapses for neuromorphic computing applications.

Vinod K. Sangwan, Hong-Sub Lee, Hadallia Bergeron, Itamar Balla, Megan E. Beck, Kan-Sheng Chen & Mark C. Hersam

doi: 10.1038/nature25747

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Sterically controlled mechanochemistry under hydrostatic pressure p.505

‘Molecular anvil’ molecules consisting of a compressible mechanophore and incompressible ligands react under hydrostatic pressure to produce elemental metal via an unexplored mechanism.

Hao Yan, Fan Yang, Ding Pan, Yu Lin, J. Nathan Hohman, Diego Solis-Ibarra, Fei Hua Li, Jeremy E. P. Dahl, Robert M. K. Carlson, Boryslav A. Tkachenko + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25765

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Meridional overturning circulation conveys fast acidification to the deep Atlantic Ocean p.515

There has been a reduction of about forty per cent in the transport of carbonate ions to the deep North Atlantic Ocean since preindustrial times, severely endangering cold-water corals.

Fiz F. Perez, Marcos Fontela, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, Herlé Mercier, Anton Velo, Pascale Lherminier, Patricia Zunino, Mercedes de la Paz, Fernando Alonso-Pérez, Elisa F. Guallart + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25493

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Global patterns of tropical forest fragmentation p.519

Satellite data and modelling reveal that tropical forest fragments have similar size distributions across continents, and that forest fragmentation is close to a critical point, beyond which fragment numbers will strongly increase.

Franziska Taubert, Rico Fischer, Jürgen Groeneveld, Sebastian Lehmann, Michael S. Müller, Edna Rödig, Thorsten Wiegand & Andreas Huth

doi: 10.1038/nature25508

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Peptidoglycan synthesis drives an FtsZ-treadmilling-independent step of cytokinesis p.528

Single-cell fluorescence microscopy reveals that cytokinesis occurs in two stages in Staphylococcus aureus, an initial slow phase followed by a faster phase after MurJ protein recruitment to the midcell triggers peptidoglycan synthesis.

João M. Monteiro, Ana R. Pereira, Nathalie T. Reichmann, Bruno M. Saraiva, Pedro B. Fernandes, Helena Veiga, Andreia C. Tavares, Margarida Santos, Maria T. Ferreira, Vânia Macário + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25506

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Transcriptional regulation by NR5A2 links differentiation and inflammation in the pancreas p.533

In mouse pancreas cells with only one copy of the Nr5a2 gene, the orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional shift from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes, which results in an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state.

Isidoro Cobo, Paola Martinelli, Marta Flández, Latifa Bakiri, Mingfeng Zhang, Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Jinping Jia, Víctor J. Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo, Diego Megías, Irene Felipe + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25751

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TGFβ drives immune evasion in genetically reconstituted colon cancer metastasis p.538

A combination of TGFβ inhibition and checkpoint-inhibition therapy provokes a potent cytotoxic response against metastatic tumours derived from colorectal cancers in mice.

Daniele V. F. Tauriello, Sergio Palomo-Ponce, Diana Stork, Antonio Berenguer-Llergo, Jordi Badia-Ramentol, Mar Iglesias, Marta Sevillano, Sales Ibiza, Adrià Cañellas, Xavier Hernando-Momblona + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25492

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TGFβ attenuates tumour response to PD-L1 blockade by contributing to exclusion of T cells p.544

In humans, TGFβ signalling is associated with lack of response to immunotherapy in immune-excluded tumours; in mouse models of this immune phenotype, robust tumour infiltration by T cells and tumour regression are observed only when checkpoint inhibition is combined with inhibition of TGFβ signalling.

Sanjeev Mariathasan, Shannon J. Turley, Dorothee Nickles, Alessandra Castiglioni, Kobe Yuen, Yulei Wang, Edward E. Kadel III, Hartmut Koeppen, Jillian L. Astarita, Rafael Cubas + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25501

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MEK drives BRAF activation through allosteric control of KSR proteins p.549

KSR–MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts, thus challenging the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.

Hugo Lavoie, Malha Sahmi, Pierre Maisonneuve, Sara A. Marullo, Neroshan Thevakumaran, Ting Jin, Igor Kurinov, Frank Sicheri & Marc Therrien

doi: 10.1038/nature25478

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