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Distant galaxies lack dark matter p.318

The masses of nearby spiral galaxies are dominated by invisible 'dark matter'. Surprisingly, galaxies in the distant Universe seem to contain comparatively little of it. See Letter p.397

Mark Swinbank

doi: 10.1038/543318a

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An improved gel for detached retinas p.319

Surgical repair of a detached retina involves the injection of a gas or silicone oil into the eye to hold the retina in place. The development of a gel with more-desirable properties than these substances might improve the success of this procedure.

Stanley Chang

doi: 10.1038/nature21898

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Bone-derived hormone suppresses appetite p.320

The glycoprotein lipocalin 2 is released from the bones of mice in a nutrient-dependent manner and binds to receptors in the brain to suppress appetite. This is the first example of bone-derived signals mediating hunger. See Article p.385

Richard D. Palmiter

doi: 10.1038/nature21501

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A plan for efficient use of nitrogen fertilizers p.322

A global analysis finds that nitrogen fertilizers could be used more efficiently if their international distribution across croplands was altered — a measure that would also decrease nitrogen pollution.

Xin Zhang

doi: 10.1038/543322a

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Sort and destroy p.324

Aggregates are aberrant, non-functional forms of protein that often build up in cells in response to stress. Organelles called mitochondria have now been found to be active players in the clearance of these protein aggregates. See Letter p.443

Agnieszka Chacinska

doi: 10.1038/nature21892

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A hidden competitive advantage of disorder p.325

The cellular response to low oxygen levels is regulated by a process in which one protein is ousted from a binding site by another. It emerges that protein disorder allows the displacement to occur remarkably efficiently. See Letter p.447

P. Andrew Chong & Julie D. Forman-Kay

doi: 10.1038/nature21893

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Perspective

Articles

Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals p.373

Aerial and underwater survey data combined with satellite-derived measurements of sea surface temperature over the past two decades show that multiple mass-bleaching events have expanded to encompass virtually all of the Great Barrier Reef.

Terry P. Hughes, James T. Kerry, Mariana Álvarez-Noriega, Jorge G. Álvarez-Romero, Kristen D. Anderson, Andrew H. Baird, Russell C. Babcock, Maria Beger, David R. Bellwood, Ray Berkelmans + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21707

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Integrated genomic and molecular characterization of cervical cancer p.378

This paper describes molecular subtypes of cervical cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma clusters defined by HPV status and molecular features, and distinct molecular pathways that are activated in cervical carcinomas caused by different somatic alterations and HPV types.

doi: 10.1038/nature21386

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MC4R-dependent suppression of appetite by bone-derived lipocalin 2 p.385

Osteoblast-derived LCN2 activates the melanocortin 4 receptor in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to suppress appetite, regulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

Ioanna Mosialou, Steven Shikhel, Jian-Min Liu, Antonio Maurizi, Na Luo, Zhenyan He, Yiru Huang, Haihong Zong, Richard A. Friedman, Jonathan Barasch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21697

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Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception p.391

Detection of weak electrical signals by skates relies on functional coupling of specific calcium and potassium channels, which mediates oscillations in electrosensory cell membrane voltage.

Nicholas W. Bellono, Duncan B. Leitch & David Julius

doi: 10.1038/nature21401

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Letters

Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago p.397

The rotation velocities in the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies are shown to decrease with disk radius, owing to high baryonic mass fractions and large velocity dispersions.

R. Genzel, N. M. Förster Schreiber, H. Übler, P. Lang, T. Naab, R. Bender, L. J. Tacconi, E. Wisnioski, S. Wuyts, T. Alexander + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21685

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High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits p.402

A recently developed computational imaging technique, X-ray ptychographic tomography, is used to study integrated circuits, and a 3D image of a processor chip with a resolution of 14.6 nm is obtained.

Mirko Holler, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Esther H. R. Tsai, Roberto Dinapoli, Elisabeth Müller, Oliver Bunk, Jörg Raabe & Gabriel Aeppli

doi: 10.1038/nature21698

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Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions p.411

Compared to using conventional jet fuel, the use of a biofuel blend reduces aircraft engine particle emissions at cruising altitude by about 50–70 per cent.

Richard H. Moore, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bernadett Weinzierl, Daniel Sauer, Eugenio D’Ascoli, Jin Kim, Michael Lichtenstern, Monika Scheibe, Brian Beaton, Andreas J. Beyersdorf + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21420

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Paleoproterozoic sterol biosynthesis and the rise of oxygen p.420

Steranes in ancient rocks have been used as ‘molecular fossils’, but the very earliest records of steranes have been shown to be contaminants; here, the presence of two key sterol biosynthesis enzymes in eukaryotes and bacteria suggests at least one gene transfer between bacteria and the earliest eukaryotes occurred some 2.3 billion years ago.

David A. Gold, Abigail Caron, Gregory P. Fournier & Roger E. Summons

doi: 10.1038/nature21412

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Interplay between metabolic identities in the intestinal crypt supports stem cell function p.424

The glycolytic activity of Paneth cells provides lactate, which is required by self-renewing intestinal stem cells for oxidative metabolism to activate p38 MAP kinase, ensuring regeneration of a mature crypt.

Maria J. Rodríguez-Colman, Matthias Schewe, Maaike Meerlo, Edwin Stigter, Johan Gerrits, Mia Pras-Raves, Andrea Sacchetti, Marten Hornsveld, Koen C. Oost, Hugo J. Snippert + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21673

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Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages p.428

A selective class IIa histone deacetylase inhibitor induces anti-tumour immunity in a mouse model of mammary cancer through altered differentiation and recruitment of tumour-associated macrophages.

Jennifer L. Guerriero, Alaba Sotayo, Holly E. Ponichtera, Jessica A. Castrillon, Alexandra L. Pourzia, Sara Schad, Shawn F. Johnson, Ruben D. Carrasco, Suzan Lazo, Roderick T. Bronson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21409

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SZT2 dictates GATOR control of mTORC1 signalling p.433

SZT2 recruits GATOR1 and GATOR2 to form a SZT2-orchestrated GATOR (SOG) complex at the lysosome that is essential for GATOR- and SESN-dependent nutrient sensing and mTORC1 regulation.

Min Peng, Na Yin & Ming O. Li

doi: 10.1038/nature21378

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KICSTOR recruits GATOR1 to the lysosome and is necessary for nutrients to regulate mTORC1 p.438

A protein complex composed of KPTN, ITFG2, C12orf66 and SZT2, named KICSTOR, is necessary for lysosomal localization of GATOR1, interaction of GATOR1 with the Rag GTPases and GATOR2, and nutrient-dependent mTORC1 modulation.

Rachel L. Wolfson, Lynne Chantranupong, Gregory A. Wyant, Xin Gu, Jose M. Orozco, Kuang Shen, Kendall J. Condon, Sabrina Petri, Jibril Kedir, Sonia M. Scaria + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21423

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