今週号

Editorials

トルコ政府は、自国の科学研究を発展させるために、科学者たちが安心して活動できる環境を作るべきだ。

Steps to help Turkey build a future on research p.271

The Turkish government must stop university dismissals and commit itself to creating a welcoming research environment if its grand plans for science are to succeed.

doi: 10.1038/542271a

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米国共和党内から出された炭素税に関する提案は、歓迎すべき妥当な温暖化対策だ。

US Republican idea for tax on carbon makes climate sense p.271

A conservative solution to global warming.

doi: 10.1038/542271b

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インターネット上での荒らし行為への有効な対応策はどうやらなさそうだ。

The dark side of social media p.272

Psychologists find that Internet trolls seem impervious to any efforts to change their behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/542272a

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News

NASAが、サンプルリターンを行う次期火星探査計画の着陸地点候補を絞り込み、3か所に。

Three sites where NASA might retrieve its first Mars rock p.279

Agency narrows possible targets for the first-ever sample return from the red planet.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21470

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ザッカーバーグ夫妻の新しい医学研究センターが、最初の助成として「大胆で高リスクな」47の研究に計5000万ドルを。

'Riskiest ideas' win $50 million from Chan Zuckerberg Biohub p.280

Initiative's first grants will fund a medley of wild ideas from top San Francisco Bay Area biologists, engineers and programmers.

Amy Maxmen

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21440

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数学の長年の難問が、地球の内部構造解明の突破口に。

Long-awaited mathematics proof could help scan Earth's innards p.281

Proposed solution to geometry puzzle allows an object’s structure to be determined from limited information.

Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21439

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ポルトガルの起伏の多い地域で風のパターンを詳細に調べる大規模な国際研究が。

World’s largest wind-mapping project spins up in Portugal p.282

International team seeks better picture of wind as it moves over rugged terrain.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/542282a

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生物医学分野のプレプリント・サーバーを、1つの中心的なものに集約しようという声が。

Heavyweight funders back central site for life-sciences preprints p.283

Coalition of scientists and research agencies argue for a one-stop shop server.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21466

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従来の合成法では不可能だった炭化水素トリアンギュレンの合成が、顕微鏡の探針を使った分子操作という新しい手法によって実現。

Elusive triangulene created by moving atoms one at a time p.284

Unstable molecule couldn’t be made through conventional synthesis, so IBM researchers carried out molecular surgery using a microscope tip.

Philip Ball

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21462

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News Features

研究: 崖っぷちにあるトルコの科学

The Turkish paradox: Can scientists thrive in a state of emergency? p.286

Political upheaval threatens Turkey’s ambitious plans for research and development.

doi: 10.1038/542286a

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News & Views

古気候科学: 脈動する氷床

Palaeoclimate science: Pulsating ice sheet p.298

During the last ice age, huge numbers of icebergs were episodically discharged from an ice sheet that covered North America. Numerical modelling suggests that these events resulted from a conceptually simple feedback cycle. See Letter p.332

Andreas Vieli

doi: 10.1038/542298a

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生理学: 代謝と老化の特殊なスイッチ

Physiology: An atypical switch for metabolism and ageing p.299

The enzyme S6K1 phosphorylates the enzyme glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase to modulate metabolic activity and lifespan, revealing an atypical role for this synthetase as a target of a key metabolic signalling pathway. See Letter p.357

Colin Selman & Dominic J. Withers

doi: 10.1038/nature21500

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ゲノミクス: キヌアから得られた鋭い洞察力

Genomics: Keen insights from quinoa p.300

Technological advances have allowed scientists to sequence the complex quinoa genome. This highlights the ongoing expansion of genomics beyond major crops to other plants that have relevance for global food security. See Article p.307

Andrew H. Paterson & Alan L. Kolata

doi: 10.1038/nature21495

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生理学: 腸の感覚が食べ物を選択する

Physiology: Gut feeling for food choice p.302

One effect of weight-loss surgery is a change in food preferences. An analysis in rats shows that this is caused by altered nutrient signals in the intestine. These activate the vagus nerve to increase signalling in the brain by the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Darleen A. Sandoval & Randy J. Seeley

doi: 10.1038/nature21499

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環境科学: 酸素を失う海洋

Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen p.303

Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

Denis Gilbert

doi: 10.1038/542303a

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進化: 多様化のきっかけとなった大規模事象

Evolution: Catastrophe triggers diversification p.304

An analysis of more than 2,000 species of bird provides insight into how the animals' diverse beak shapes evolved, and points to a single rare event as a trigger for the rapid initial divergence of avian lineages. See Letter p.344

Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar

doi: 10.1038/nature21494

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Articles

植物科学: キヌアのゲノム

The genome of Chenopodium quinoa OPEN p.307

Constructing a reference genome for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) allows for genetic diversity during the evolution of sub-genomes in quinoa to be characterized and markers that may be used to develop sweet commercial varieties are identified.

David E. Jarvis, Yung Shwen Ho, Damien J. Lightfoot, Sandra M. Schmöckel, Bo Li, Theo J. A. Borm, Hajime Ohyanagi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Craig T. Michell, Noha Saber + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21370

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幹細胞: 分岐形態形成中の乳腺幹細胞の特徴と動態

Identity and dynamics of mammary stem cells during branching morphogenesis p.313

The formation of the branched epithelial network of the mouse mammary gland during puberty is driven by a heterogeneous population of stem cells at the terminal end buds of the epithelium.

Colinda L. G. J. Scheele, Edouard Hannezo, Mauro J. Muraro, Anoek Zomer, Nathalia S. M. Langedijk, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D. Simons & Jacco van Rheenen

doi: 10.1038/nature21046

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構造生物学: スプライシングの第2段階のために活性化したヒトスプライソソームの低温電子顕微鏡構造

Cryo-EM structure of a human spliceosome activated for step 2 of splicing p.318

The cryo-EM structure of the splicing intermediate known as the C* complex from human.

Karl Bertram, Dmitry E. Agafonov, Wen-Ti Liu, Olexandr Dybkov, Cindy L. Will, Klaus Hartmuth, Henning Urlaub, Berthold Kastner, Holger Stark & Reinhard Lührmann

doi: 10.1038/nature21079

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Letters

材料科学: 光起電力型電界効果トランジスター

Photovoltage field-effect transistors p.324

A photovoltage field-effect transistor is demonstrated that is very sensitive to infrared light and has high gain.

Valerio Adinolfi & Edward H. Sargent

doi: 10.1038/nature21050

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材料科学: 無機溶融塩中の安定コロイド

Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts p.328

A class of colloids is reported in which inorganic solute particles—such as metals and semiconductors—are dispersed in molten inorganic salts.

Hao Zhang, Kinjal Dasbiswas, Nicholas B. Ludwig, Gang Han, Byeongdu Lee, Suri Vaikuntanathan & Dmitri V. Talapin

doi: 10.1038/nature21041

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気候科学: 海洋強制によって起こり地殻均衡によって調節されるハインリッヒイベント

Heinrich events triggered by ocean forcing and modulated by isostatic adjustment p.332

Heinrich events — episodes of massive iceberg discharge from the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the North Atlantic Ocean — are triggered by the incursion of warm ocean waters destabilizing the calving front.

Jeremy N. Bassis, Sierra V. Petersen & L. Mac Cathles

doi: 10.1038/nature21069

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気候科学: 全球海洋の酸素含有量の過去50年にわたる減少

Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades p.335

The oxygen content of the global ocean has decreased by more than two per cent over the past five decades, with large variations found in different ocean basins and at different ocean depths.

Sunke Schmidtko, Lothar Stramma & Martin Visbeck

doi: 10.1038/nature21399

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地球科学: 最高温のマントルプリュームが運ぶ始原的ヘリウム

Primordial helium entrained by the hottest mantle plumes p.340

Analysis of helium isotope ratios in volcanic hotspot lavas suggests that hotter, more buoyant plumes upwelling from the deep mantle entrain high-3He/4He material, unlike cooler, less buoyant plumes, implying the existence of a dense, relatively undisturbed primordial reservoir in the deep mantle.

M. G. Jackson, J. G. Konter & T.W. Becker

doi: 10.1038/nature21023

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進化学: 鳥類の適応放散の巨大進化動態

Mega-evolutionary dynamics of the adaptive radiation of birds p.344

A study of more than 2,000 bird species shows that diversity in bill shape expands towards extreme morphologies early in avian evolution in a series of major jumps, before switching to a second phase in which bills repeatedly evolve similar shapes by subdividing increasingly tight regions of already occupied niche space.

Christopher R. Cooney, Jen A. Bright, Elliot J. R. Capp, Angela M. Chira, Emma C. Hughes, Christopher J. A. Moody, Lara O. Nouri, Zoë K. Varley & Gavin H. Thomas

doi: 10.1038/nature21074

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健康科学: 自閉症スペクトラム障害のリスクが高い幼児における早期脳発達

Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder p.348

Surface area expansion from 6–12 months precedes brain overgrowth in high risk infants diagnosed with autism at 24 months and cortical features in the first year predict individual diagnostic outcomes.

Heather Cody Hazlett, Hongbin Gu, Brent C. Munsell, Sun Hyung Kim, Martin Styner, Jason J. Wolff, Jed T. Elison, Meghan R. Swanson, Hongtu Zhu, Kelly N. Botteron + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21369

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生理学: 単一細胞空間的再構築から明らかになる哺乳類肝臓での全体的分業

Single-cell spatial reconstruction reveals global division of labour in the mammalian liver p.352

Single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization is performed to identify several landmark genes in the liver and their level of expression in single-cell RNA sequencing is used to spatially reconstruct the zonation of all liver genes.

Keren Bahar Halpern, Rom Shenhav, Orit Matcovitch-Natan, Beáta Tóth, Doron Lemze, Matan Golan, Efi E. Massasa, Shaked Baydatch, Shanie Landen, Andreas E. Moor + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21065

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生化学: EPRSはmTORC1–S6K1の重要なエフェクターでありマウスの脂肪症に影響を及ぼす

EPRS is a critical mTORC1–S6K1 effector that influences adiposity in mice p.357

Glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) is a downstream effector of the mTORC1–S6K1 signalling axis and contributes to adiposity and ageing in mice.

Abul Arif, Fulvia Terenzi, Alka A. Potdar, Jie Jia, Jessica Sacks, Arnab China, Dalia Halawani, Kommireddy Vasu, Xiaoxia Li, J. Mark Brown + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21380

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がん: 膵臓がんの間葉系細胞亜集団の合成脆弱性

Synthetic vulnerabilities of mesenchymal subpopulations in pancreatic cancer p.362

Depletion of Smarcb1 activates the Myc network of signalling cascades, increasing protein metabolism and activation of survival pathways allowing highly aggressive Kras-independent pancreatic cancer cells to develop.

Giannicola Genovese, Alessandro Carugo, James Tepper, Frederick Scott Robinson, Liren Li, Maria Svelto, Luigi Nezi, Denise Corti, Rosalba Minelli, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21064

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神経科学: 線虫のニューロンは神経毒性ストレス下においてタンパク質凝集体とミトコンドリアを細胞外へ捨てる

C. elegans neurons jettison protein aggregates and mitochondria under neurotoxic stress p.367

Adult neurons from Caenorhabditis elegans can extrude large membrane-surrounded vesicles, known as exophers, containing protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles that threaten neuronal homeostasis.

Ilija Melentijevic, Marton L. Toth, Meghan L. Arnold, Ryan J. Guasp, Girish Harinath, Ken C. Nguyen, Daniel Taub, J. Alex Parker, Christian Neri, Christopher V. Gabel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21362

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構造生物学: MFN1の構造から明らかになったミトコンドリア融合に不可欠なヌクレオチド誘導性の二量体化

MFN1 structures reveal nucleotide-triggered dimerization critical for mitochondrial fusion p.372

Crystal structures of engineered human MFN1 in different stages of GTP hydrolysis provide insights into the GTP-induced conformational changes that promote MFN1 dimerization to bring about mitochondrial fusion.

Yu-Lu Cao, Shuxia Meng, Yang Chen, Jian-Xiong Feng, Dong-Dong Gu, Bing Yu, Yu-Jie Li, Jin-Yu Yang, Shuang Liao, David C. Chan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21077

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構造生物学: エキソン結合のために構造が変化したスプライソソームの構造

Structure of a spliceosome remodelled for exon ligation p.377

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a yeast spliceosome stalled before mature RNA formation provides insight into the mechanism of exon ligation.

Sebastian M. Fica, Chris Oubridge, Wojciech P. Galej, Max E. Wilkinson, Xiao-Chen Bai, Andrew J. Newman & Kiyoshi Nagai

doi: 10.1038/nature21078

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