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Editorials

セクシャルハラスメント問題の改善に向けた取り組みに消極的な大学が多いが、こうした現状を変えるべきときだ。

More universities must confront sexual harassment p.379

Too many institutions give low priority to tackling sexual misconduct in science.

doi: 10.1038/547379a

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オンラインゲームの若者のメンタルヘルスへの影響については議論が絶えないが、決定的な証拠を得るための研究の機会はたくさんある。

Put cult online games to the test p.379

There are now vast opportunities to study the effects on young minds.

doi: 10.1038/547379b

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デジタルネイティブとそれ以前の世代に、大きな違いはないようだ。

The digital native is a myth p.380

The younger generation uses technology in the same ways as older people — and is no better at multitasking.

doi: 10.1038/547380a

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News

海底火山の噴火で形成したアイスランド・スルツェイ島の新たな掘削調査に期待が。

Iceland drilling project aims to unearth how islands form p.387

Scientists will look into the heart of Surtsey, an island created 50 years ago by a volcanic eruption.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22340

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米国防総省高等研究計画局(DARPA)が、国家安全保障の観点から遺伝子ドライブ研究に資金を。

US defence agencies grapple with gene drives p.388

National security community examines the risks and benefits of technology to quickly spread genetic modifications.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22345

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視床下部の幹細胞の移植によってマウスの老化を遅らせることができたという報告が。

Brain’s stem cells slow ageing in mice p.389

Transplanted cells offer middle-aged rodents an increased lifespan.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/547389a

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英国では、技術革新と研究成果の商業化を支援推進する資金配分機関「Innovate UK」の存在感がますます大きく。

Budding UK innovation agency gains cash — and clout p.390

Business-focused funding agency Innovate UK is driving British efforts to commercialize research.

Elizabeth Gibney

doi: 10.1038/547390a

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スクエア・キロメートル・アレイの経費がさらに節減され、予定されていた性能に懸念が。

Giant radio telescope scaled back to contain costs p.391

Crowding antennas closer together may affect the Square Kilometre Array's ability to observe the early Universe.

Sarah Wild

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22361

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News Features

宇宙科学: 期待の星

China’s quest to become a space science superpower p.394

With major spaceflight milestones behind it, China is working to build an international reputation for space science.

doi: 10.1038/547394a

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News & Views

生体力学: 魚が流れを感知する方法

Biomechanics: How fish feel the flow p.406

Hair-like sensors are suspected to aid fish navigation in complex environments. Laboratory experiments and computational simulations reveal how these sensors can detect water flow to direct the swimming responses of fish. See Letter p.445

John O. Dabiri

doi: 10.1038/nature23096

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応用物理学: ナノスケールのコンピューティングの新たな展開

Applied physics: A new spin on nanoscale computing p.407

A nanoscale magnetic device that mimics the behaviour of neurons has been used to recognize audio signals. Such a device could be adapted to tackle tasks with greater efficiency than conventional computers. See Letter p.428

Frank Hoppensteadt

doi: 10.1038/547407a

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神経生物学: シナプスが協力して視覚を処理する

Neurobiology: Synapses get together for vision p.408

A sophisticated analysis in mice of how inputs to neurons from other neurons are distributed across individual cells of the brain's visual cortex provides information about how mammalian vision is processed. See Letter p.449

Tobias Rose & Mark Hübener

doi: 10.1038/nature23098

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有機化学: 容易になった分子構造の決定

Organic chemistry: Molecular structure assignment simplified p.410

An innovative combination of chemical synthesis, theory and spectroscopy could simplify determination of the structures of naturally occurring, biologically active molecules, which are often leads for drug discovery. See Letter p.436a

Severin K. Thompson & Thomas R. Hoye

doi: 10.1038/547410a

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グローバルヘルス: ポリオ根絶に向けて

Global health: Towards polio eradication p.411

Polio has almost been eradicated. A field study demonstrates that a combination of focused science and epidemiology, and community-based integrated health approaches, are required to finish the job.

Jaime Sepúlveda

doi: 10.1038/547411a

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Articles

腫瘍免疫学: in vivoでのCRISPRスクリーニングにより明らかになったがん免疫療法の標的としてのPtpn2

In vivo CRISPR screening identifies Ptpn2 as a cancer immunotherapy target p.413

In vivo CRISPR screening reveals that loss of Ptpn2 increases the response of tumour cells to immunotherapy and increases IFNγ signalling, suggesting that PTPN2 inhibition may potentiate the effect of immunotherapies that invoke an IFNγ response.

Robert T. Manguso, Hans W. Pope, Margaret D. Zimmer, Flavian D. Brown, Kathleen B. Yates, Brian C. Miller, Natalie B. Collins, Kevin Bi, Martin W. LaFleur, Vikram R. Juneja + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23270

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エピジェネティクス: 母系のH3K27me3がDNAメチル化に依存しないインプリンティングを制御する

Maternal H3K27me3 controls DNA methylation-independent imprinting p.419

Analysis of parental allele-specific chromatin accessibility genome-wide in mouse zygotes and morula embryos, and investigation of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these allelic sites, identifying maternal H3K27me3 as a DNA methylation-independent mechanism for genomic imprinting.

Azusa Inoue, Lan Jiang, Falong Lu, Tsukasa Suzuki & Yi Zhang

doi: 10.1038/nature23262

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Letters

天文学: GRB 160625Bの即時可視閃光の間に顕著に変動する直線偏光

Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B p.425

The prompt optical flash produced by the γ-ray burst GRB 160625B is highly linearly polarized, suggesting that it is produced by fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field.

E. Troja, V. M. Lipunov, C. G. Mundell, N. R. Butler, A. M. Watson, S. Kobayashi, S. B. Cenko, F. E. Marshall, R. Ricci, A. Fruchter + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23289

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応用物理学: ナノスケールのスピントロニクス振動子を用いる神経形態学的コンピューティング

Neuromorphic computing with nanoscale spintronic oscillators p.428

Spoken-digit recognition using a nanoscale spintronic oscillator that mimics the behaviour of neurons demonstrates the potential of such oscillators for realizing large-scale neural networks in future hardware.

Jacob Torrejon, Mathieu Riou, Flavio Abreu Araujo, Sumito Tsunegi, Guru Khalsa, Damien Querlioz, Paolo Bortolotti, Vincent Cros, Kay Yakushiji, Akio Fukushima + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23011

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物性物理学: 銅酸化物超伝導体の回転対称性の自発的破れ

Spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in copper oxide superconductors p.432

The electronic nematic phase in copper oxide superconductors is found over a broad range of temperature and doping but is not aligned with the crystal axes.

J. Wu, A. T. Bollinger, X. He & I. Božović

doi: 10.1038/nature23290

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有機化学: 合成、計算、NMRの相乗効果で明らかになったバウラマイシンの正確な構造

Synergy of synthesis, computation and NMR reveals correct baulamycin structures p.436

Experimental and computed nuclear magnetic resonance data and an iterative synthetic strategy have revealed the correct structures of the baulamycins, potentially important antimicrobial compounds, allowing them to be chemically synthesized.

Jingjing Wu, Paula Lorenzo, Siying Zhong, Muhammad Ali, Craig P. Butts, Eddie L. Myers & Varinder K. Aggarwal

doi: 10.1038/nature23265

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環境科学: 森林の世界的喪失による生物多様性の喪失は、手付かずの景観では不釣り合いなほど大きい

Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes p.441

Deforestation increases the odds of a species being threatened by extinction, and this effect is disproportionately strong in relatively intact landscapes, suggesting that efforts are needed to protect intact forest landscapes and prevent a new wave of extinctions.

Matthew G. Betts, Christopher Wolf, William J. Ripple, Ben Phalan, Kimberley A. Millers, Adam Duarte, Stuart H. M. Butchart & Taal Levi

doi: 10.1038/nature23285

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生体力学: ゼブラフィッシュ幼生における機械刺激受容に基づく走流性の新たな機構

A novel mechanism for mechanosensory-based rheotaxis in larval zebrafish p.445

In the absence of visual information, larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) use their mechanosensory lateral line to perform rheotaxis by using flow velocity gradients as navigational cues.

Pablo Oteiza, Iris Odstrcil, George Lauder, Ruben Portugues & Florian Engert

doi: 10.1038/nature23014

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神経科学: 一次視覚野における視覚空間のシナプス構築

Synaptic organization of visual space in primary visual cortex p.449

Mapping the organization of excitatory inputs onto the dendritic spines of individual mouse visual cortex neurons reveals how inputs representing features from the extended visual scene are organized and establishes a computational unit suited to amplify contours and elongated edges.

M. Florencia Iacaruso, Ioana T. Gasler & Sonja B. Hofer

doi: 10.1038/nature23019

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がん: がん細胞の治療抵抗性状態は脂質ペルオキシダーゼ経路に依存する

Dependency of a therapy-resistant state of cancer cells on a lipid peroxidase pathway p.453

Therapy-resistant cancer cell states identified across diverse contexts are selectively vulnerable to ferroptotic cell death induced by inhibition of lipid peroxidase pathways converging on GPX4.

Vasanthi S. Viswanathan, Matthew J. Ryan, Harshil D. Dhruv, Shubhroz Gill, Ossia M. Eichhoff, Brinton Seashore-Ludlow, Samuel D. Kaffenberger, John K. Eaton, Kenichi Shimada, Andrew J. Aguirre + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23007

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遺伝学: システインプロテアーゼであるカテプシンBが放射線誘発バイスタンダー効果を仲介する

Cysteine protease cathepsin B mediates radiation-induced bystander effects p.458

The cysteine protease CPR-4, a cathepsin B homologue, is identified as a radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) factor in nematodes in response to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, and causes inhibition of cell death and increased embryonic lethality.

Yu Peng, Man Zhang, Lingjun Zheng, Qian Liang, Hanzeng Li, Jeng-Ting Chen, Hongyan Guo, Sawako Yoshina, Yu-Zen Chen, Xiang Zhao + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23284

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分子生物学: RNAiと遺伝性の転写サイレンシングにおけるヒストンH3K9meの状態に固有の役割

Unique roles for histone H3K9me states in RNAi and heritable silencing of transcription p.463

Heterochromatin formation involves histone H3 methylation, with H3K9me2 defining a distinct heterochromatin state that is transcriptionally permissive and can couple with RNAi, and the transition to non-permissive H3K9me3 required for the epigenetic heritability of heterochromatin.

Gloria Jih, Nahid Iglesias, Mark A. Currie, Natarajan V. Bhanu, Joao A. Paulo, Steven P. Gygi, Benjamin A. Garcia & Danesh Moazed

doi: 10.1038/nature23267

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構造生物学: アゴニストが結合したヒト・カンナビノイド受容体CB1の結晶構造

Crystal structures of agonist-bound human cannabinoid receptor CB1 p.468

Crystal structures of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) bound to the agonists AM11542 and AM841 reveal notable structural rearrangements upon receptor activation, and this flexibility may be a common feature among other G-protein-coupled receptors.

Tian Hua, Kiran Vemuri, Spyros P. Nikas, Robert B. Laprairie, Yiran Wu, Lu Qu, Mengchen Pu, Anisha Korde, Shan Jiang, Jo-Hao Ho + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23272

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構造生物学: リソソームのカリウムチャネルTMEM175は新規の四量体構造をとっている

The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 adopts a novel tetrameric architecture p.472

The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 has a tetrameric structure unlike that of the canonical potassium channels, with an hourglass-shaped pore in which isoleucine residues have a key role in channel selectivity.

Changkeun Lee, Jiangtao Guo, Weizhong Zeng, Sunghoon Kim, Ji She, Chunlei Cang, Dejian Ren & Youxing Jiang

doi: 10.1038/nature23269

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