今週号

Editorials

科学者たちが反対を強く示せば、フランス大統領選での極右の勝利を防ぐことができるはずだ。

French scientists focus on the big political picture p.269

Researchers in France overwhelmingly oppose the far right and can stamp out its rise by turning out to register their disapproval.

doi: 10.1038/544269a

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米国が対外的な科学研究資金の提供を削減すれば、米国自身の競争力が低下する。

US foreign aid saves money as well as lives p.269

Cutting the budget for applied research in foreign aid would make the United States less competitive.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21826

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装着型のデバイスは、健康的な運動習慣を広めるのに役立つらしい。

Social networks push runners to run further and faster than their friends p.270

Online data sharing through wearable devices motivates people to do more exercise.

doi: 10.1038/544270a

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News

フランスの研究者たちが、極右大統領の誕生を恐れて自由民主主義を守ろうという動きを。

French-election fears unite scientists in defence of liberal democracy p.277

Threat of a far-right president galvanizes researchers to put politics first.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/544277a

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ナノマシンを競わせる「ナノカーレース」が、間もなく開催へ。

Drivers gear up for world’s first nanocar race p.278

Chemists will navigate molecular wagons along a tiny golden track.

Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/544278a

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靴ひもがいきなりほどける理由が明らかに。

Unravelling why shoelace knots fail p.279

A better understanding of this pedestrian problem could lead to improved surgeons’ knots and fibres.

Erin Ross

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21815

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トランプ政権のもとで、共和党の研究者たちが、自らの政治信条と自由主義的な学術界の風潮との間で板挟みに。

Republican scientists negotiate the Trump era p.280

Conservative academics face a growing tension between their politics and the liberal atmosphere on many US campuses.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/544280a

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国際協力によって顧みられない病気に関する取り組みに一定の成果が挙がっているが、まだ課題も。

Global coalition chips away at neglected tropical diseases p.281

Partnerships see some success in eliminating illnesses, but challenges, such as access to treatments, remain.

Amy Maxmen

doi: 10.1038/544281a

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News Features

ゲノミクス: 信頼のループ

DNA's secret weapon against knots and tangles p.284

A simple process seems to explain how massive genomes stay organized and untangled. But no one can agree on what powers it.

doi: 10.1038/544284a

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News & Views

生態学: 最悪の病原体がもたらす危機

Ecology: In peril from a perfect pathogen p.300

It emerges that a fungal infection killing salamanders has many potential reservoirs, and that environmentally resistant spores transmit disease. Urgent interventions are needed to save susceptible populations from extinction. See Letter p.353

Matthew C. Fisher

doi: 10.1038/544300a

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材料科学: グラフェンを通して配列する結晶

Materials science: Crystals aligned through graphene p.301

Graphene has been used as a 'transparent' layer that allows single crystals of a material to be grown on a substrate, and then lifted off — in much the same way that baking paper lets cakes be removed easily from tins. See Letter p.340

Minjoo Larry Lee

doi: 10.1038/544301a

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神経変性疾患: 1つで2つの疾患に有効な可能性がある治療法

Neurodegenerative Disease: Two–for–one on potential therapies p.302

Molecules that inhibit the synthesis of the ataxin 2 protein can ameliorate the effects of two neurodegenerative diseases in mouse models, raising hopes for the success of this approach in clinical trials. See Letters p.362 & p.367

Ke Zhang & Jeffrey D. Rothstein

doi: 10.1038/nature21911

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微生物学: 腸内微生物が神経変性を増悪させる

Microbiology: Gut microbes augment neurodegeneration p.304

Bacterial residents of the human body often provide beneficial effects, but some can be harmful. The action of gut bacteria has been found to be tightly linked to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Daniel Erny & Marco Prinz

doi: 10.1038/nature21910

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材料科学: ガラスを印刷する方法

Materials science: How to print glass p.305

doi: 10.1038/544305a

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雪氷学: 棚氷の安定性に疑問符

Glaciology: Ice-shelf stability questioned p.306

Surface lakes and streams are forming on Antarctica's ice shelves, making them susceptible to instability and possible collapse. But rivers could mitigate this effect by efficiently exporting meltwater to the ocean. See Letters p.344 & p.349

Alison Banwell

doi: 10.1038/544306a

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構造生物学: 自身を阻害する可能性がある受容体

Structural biology: A receptor that might block itself p.307

The structure of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor reveals a potential mode of self-blocking action. This might explain its lack of signalling, and opens up avenues of investigation into its function and role in disease. See Article p.327

Christopher G. Tate

doi: 10.1038/nature21907

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Articles

疫学: ウイルスゲノムから明らかになった、エボラ出血熱の流行の拡大および持続をもたらした要因

Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic p.309

Frequent dispersal and short-lived local transmission clusters fuelled the 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford, Andrew J. Tatem, Guy Baele, Nuno R. Faria, Daniel J. Park, Jason T. Ladner, Armando Arias, Danny Asogun + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22040

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神経科学: LTP中にはシナプス後部のシナプトタグミンがAMPA受容体のエキソサイト―シスを仲介する

Postsynaptic synaptotagmins mediate AMPA receptor exocytosis during LTP p.316

Postsynaptic synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7 mediate calcium-dependent exocytosis of AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation.

Dick Wu, Taulant Bacaj, Wade Morishita, Debanjan Goswami, Kristin L. Arendt, Wei Xu, Lu Chen, Robert C. Malenka & Thomas C. Südhof

doi: 10.1038/nature21720

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生化学: オキセタノシンAの生合成に関わるB12依存性ラジカルSAM酵素

A B12-dependent radical SAM enzyme involved in oxetanocin A biosynthesis p.322

The biosynthesis of oxetanocin A involves OxsB, a B12-dependent S-adenosylmethionine radical enzyme, which catalyses an unusual ring contraction of a 2′-deoxyadenosine phosphate.

Jennifer Bridwell-Rabb, Aoshu Zhong, He G. Sun, Catherine L. Drennan & Hung-wen Liu

doi: 10.1038/nature21689

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構造生物学: アンギオテンシンII受容体の選択性と多様性の構造基盤

Structural basis for selectivity and diversity in angiotensin II receptors p.327

Crystal structures of two complexes of the angiotensin II receptor AT2R with distinct tightly bound ligands reveal an active-like state of the receptor, in which helix VIII adopts a non-canonical position that blocks binding of G proteins and β-arrestins.

Haitao Zhang, Gye Won Han, Alexander Batyuk, Andrii Ishchenko, Kate L. White, Nilkanth Patel, Anastasiia Sadybekov, Beata Zamlynny, Michael T. Rudd, Kaspar Hollenstein + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22035

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Letters

天文学: 近傍にある低温の恒星をトランジットする岩石質の温暖なスーパーアース

A temperate rocky super-Earth transiting a nearby cool star p.333

An Earth-sized planet is observed orbiting a nearby star within the liquid-water, habitable zone, the atmospheric composition of which could be determined from future observations.

Jason A. Dittmann, Jonathan M. Irwin, David Charbonneau, Xavier Bonfils, Nicola Astudillo-Defru, Raphaëlle D. Haywood, Zachory K. Berta-Thompson, Elisabeth R. Newton, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Jennifer G. Winters + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22055

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材料科学: 透明溶融シリカガラスの三次元印刷

Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass p.337

Using stereolithography 3D printers, a silica nanocomposite is shaped and then fused to produce non-porous, very smooth, highly transparent fused silica glass components.

Frederik Kotz, Karl Arnold, Werner Bauer, Dieter Schild, Nico Keller, Kai Sachsenheimer, Tobias M. Nargang, Christiane Richter, Dorothea Helmer & Bastian E. Rapp

doi: 10.1038/nature22061

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材料科学: グラフェンを介したリモートエピタキシーによって二次元の材料ベースの層転写が可能になる

Remote epitaxy through graphene enables two-dimensional material-based layer transfer p.340

Conventional epitaxy is of limited application, but by placing a monolayer of graphene between the substrate and the so-called epilayer grown on top, its scope can be substantially extended.

Yunjo Kim, Samuel S. Cruz, Kyusang Lee, Babatunde O. Alawode, Chanyeol Choi, Yi Song, Jared M. Johnson, Christopher Heidelberger, Wei Kong, Shinhyun Choi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22053

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気候科学: 表面の川への融解水の流出によって安定化する可能性がある南極の棚氷

Antarctic ice shelf potentially stabilized by export of meltwater in surface river p.344

On the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica, a surface river that terminates in a waterfall can drain the ice shelf’s entire annual meltwater in just one week, potentially preventing the meltwater from hastening the catastrophic collapse of the shelf.

Robin E. Bell, Winnie Chu, Jonathan Kingslake, Indrani Das, Marco Tedesco, Kirsty J. Tinto, Christopher J. Zappa, Massimo Frezzotti, Alexandra Boghosian & Won Sang Lee

doi: 10.1038/nature22048

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気候科学: 南極の棚氷の上へ、さらに棚氷を横切って広範囲に移動する融解水

Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves p.349

Surface water and its drainage across the surface of Antarctic ice is shown to be widespread, large-scale and to have persisted for decades.

Jonathan Kingslake, Jeremy C. Ely, Indrani Das & Robin E. Bell

doi: 10.1038/nature22049

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生態学: イモリツボカビを介した有尾類の局所的絶滅の駆動要因

Drivers of salamander extirpation mediated by Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans p.353

The authors investigated the disease ecology of the fast-spreading fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in fire salamanders; on the basis of their research, they call for Europe-wide monitoring systems and conservation strategies for threatened species.

Gwij Stegen, Frank Pasmans, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Lieze O. Rouffaer, Sarah Van Praet, Michael Schaub, Stefano Canessa, Arnaud Laudelout, Thierry Kinet, Connie Adriaensen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22059

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進化学: 古代の歯石DNAから示唆された、ネアンデルタール人の行動、食餌および疾患

Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus p.357

Analysis of calcified dental plaque (calculus) specimens from Neanderthals shows marked regional differences in diet and microbiota and evidence of self-medication in one individual, and identifies prevalent microorganisms and their divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans.

Laura S. Weyrich, Sebastian Duchene, Julien Soubrier, Luis Arriola, Bastien Llamas, James Breen, Alan G. Morris, Kurt W. Alt, David Caramelli, Veit Dresely + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21674

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神経変性疾患: 脊髄小脳失調症2型に対するアンチセンスオリゴヌクレオチド治療

Antisense oligonucleotide therapy for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 p.362

Antisense oligonucleotides against ATXN2 improved motor neuron function and restored firing frequency in cerebellar Purkinje cells in mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

Daniel R. Scoles, Pratap Meera, Matthew D. Schneider, Sharan Paul, Warunee Dansithong, Karla P. Figueroa, Gene Hung, Frank Rigo, C. Frank Bennett, Thomas S. Otis + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22044

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神経変性疾患: アタキシン2を減少させる治療はTDP-43マウスの寿命の延長と病状の低減を引き起こす

Therapeutic reduction of ataxin-2 extends lifespan and reduces pathology in TDP-43 mice p.367

A decrease in ataxin-2 levels leads to a reduction in the aggregation of TDP-43, markedly increased lifespan and improved motor function in a transgenic mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathy.

Lindsay A. Becker, Brenda Huang, Gregor Bieri, Rosanna Ma, David A. Knowles, Paymaan Jafar-Nejad, James Messing, Hong Joo Kim, Armand Soriano, Georg Auburger + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22038

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がん: 食餌中のセリンとグリシンを枯渇させて腫瘍の治療応答を調節する

Modulating the therapeutic response of tumours to dietary serine and glycine starvation p.372

Dependence on exogenous serine means that tumour growth is restricted in mice on a low-serine diet; this effect on tumour growth can be amplified by antagonizing the antioxidant response.

Oliver D. K. Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C. Cheung, Pearl Lee, Tong Zhang, Niels J. F. van den Broek, Gillian M. Mackay, Christiaan F. Labuschagne, David Gay, Flore Kruiswijk + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22056

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分子生物学: Rad51を介した多様な基質の二本鎖切断修復とミスマッチ修復

Rad51-mediated double-strand break repair and mismatch correction of divergent substrates p.377

DNA repair by break-induced replication begins with the Rad51-mediated invasion of single-stranded DNA into a double-stranded donor template; this study shows that successful recombination between highly mismatched substrates can occur when only five consecutive bases can be paired and that mismatch correction is most efficient near the invading end of the recipient strand.

Ranjith Anand, Annette Beach, Kevin Li & James Haber

doi: 10.1038/nature22046

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