Clock is ticking for WHO decision over Taiwan p.385

The World Health Organization shouldn’t allow regional politics to hamper public health.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22019

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Intelligence research should not be held back by its past p.385

The nuances achieved by modern genetics can be used to dispel a history of racism and elitism.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22021

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Eighty-eight days till the next total eclipse of the Sun p.386

Nature won’t repeat the mistake of its founding editor when this summer’s totality is visible in the United States.

doi: 10.1038/545385b

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Iron-dumping ocean experiment sparks controversy p.393

Canadian foundation says its field research could boost fisheries in Chile, but researchers doubt its motives.

Jeff Tollefson

doi: 10.1038/545393a

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Fixing the tomato: CRISPR edits correct plant-breeding snafu p.394

Geneticists harness two mutations — each cherished by breeders, but detrimental when combined — to improve on 10,000 years of tomato domestication.

Heidi Ledford

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22018

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China expands DNA data grab in troubled western region p.395

Alarms raised over suspected efforts to collect massive numbers of genetic samples from citizens.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/545395a

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Drop in cases of Zika threatens large-scale trials p.396

Studies are struggling to recruit participants following a marked drop in cases of the virus.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/545396a

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Earth-observing companies push for more-advanced science satellites p.397

Firms seek to develop sophisticated instruments to compete with government offerings.

Gabriel Popkin

doi: 10.1038/545397a

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News Features

研究資金: 資金を勝ち取るためには

The best-kept secrets to winning grants p.399

With competition for research funding approaching an all-time high, experts reveal their top tips and tricks.

doi: 10.1038/545399a

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News & Views

量子物理学: ハバード模型のより確かな理解

Quantum physics: A firmer grip on the Hubbard model p.414

The Hubbard model describes the behaviour of interacting quantum particles, but many of its properties remain unknown. A system of ultracold atoms could provide the key to determining the model's underlying physics. See Letter p.462

Thierry Giamarchi

doi: 10.1038/545414a

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血液: 幹細胞の培養

Blood: Education for stem cells p.415

Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to all lineages of blood cell, and their production in vitro has been a long-sought goal of stem-cell biology. Two groups now achieve this feat through different means. See Articles p.432 & p.439

Carolina Guibentif & Berthold Göttgens

doi: 10.1038/nature22496

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医学研究: がんの再発を探知する個別化検査

Medical research: Personalized test tracks cancer relapse p.417

Genomic analysis of lung-tumour evolution has been used to create personalized blood tests that enable successful clinical monitoring for early signs of cancer relapse — a promising step on the road to precision medicine. See Article p.446

Alberto Bardelli

doi: 10.1038/545417a

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天文学: 大質量銀河の手掛かりとなるクエーサー

Astronomy: Quasars signpost massive galaxies p.418

The neighbourhoods of extremely bright astronomical objects called quasars in the early Universe have been incompletely probed. Observations suggest that these regions harbour some of the most massive known galaxies. See Letter p.457

Rychard Bouwens

doi: 10.1038/545418a

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植物生物学: 農作物病害と闘う免疫強化

Plant Biology: An immunity boost combats crop disease p.420

Plants precisely express some immune regulators by controlling the translation of messenger RNA into protein. This insight enabled a disease-resistant rice to be engineered without compromised productivity. See Letters p.487 & p.491

Julia Bailey-Serres & Wenbo Ma

doi: 10.1038/nature22497

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回顧: 20年にわたる世界の健康の見積もり

In Retrospect: Global health estimated over two decades p.421

Reliably measuring global health is a huge challenge. Four papers published in 1997 laid foundations for future global-health estimates, but, despite subsequent advances, better integration of data systems and models is still needed.

Peter Byass

doi: 10.1038/545421a

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がん: 治療のためのT細胞改変

Therapeutic T cell engineering p.423

Michel Sadelain, Isabelle Rivière & Stanley Riddell

doi: 10.1038/nature22395

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幹細胞: ヒト多能性幹細胞から作製された造血幹・前駆細胞

Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells p.432

Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell conversion of human pluripotent stem cell-derived haemogenic endothelium.

Ryohichi Sugimura, Deepak Kumar Jha, Areum Han, Clara Soria-Valles, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Yi-Fen Lu, Jeremy A. Goettel, Erik Serrao, R. Grant Rowe, Mohan Malleshaiah + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22370

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幹細胞: 成体内皮から免疫担当造血幹細胞への転換

Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem cells p.439

The authors reprogram in vitro endothelial cells from adult mice into engraftable haematopoietic stem cells that display single-cell and multilineage properties, are capable of long-term self-renewal and can reconstitute T cell adaptive immune function.

Raphael Lis, Charles C. Karrasch, Michael G. Poulos, Balvir Kunar, David Redmond, Jose G. Barcia Duran, Chaitanya R. Badwe, William Schachterle, Michael Ginsberg, Jenny Xiang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22326

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医学研究: ctDNAの系統発生解析が明らかにする肺がん進化の初期段階

Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution p.446

Circulating tumour DNA profiling in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer can be used to track single-nucleotide variants in plasma to predict lung cancer relapse and identify tumour subclones involved in the metastatic process.

Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J. Birkbak, Gareth A. Wilson, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Tudor Constantin, Raheleh Salari, John Le Quesne, David A. Moore, Selvaraju Veeriah, Rachel Rosenthal + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22364

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免疫学: クロマチンの状態は腫瘍特異的T細胞の機能不全と再プログラム化を規定する

Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and reprogramming p.452

Epigenetic programming of T cells in solid tumours from a functional to a dysfunctional state occurs in two phases, and only the first phase is reversible.

Mary Philip, Lauren Fairchild, Liping Sun, Ellen L. Horste, Steven Camara, Mojdeh Shakiba, Andrew C. Scott, Agnes Viale, Peter Lauer, Taha Merghoub + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22367

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天文学: 赤方偏移が6を超える位置にあるクエーサーに近接した急速に星形成している銀河

Rapidly star-forming galaxies adjacent to quasars at redshifts exceeding 6 p.457

Four galaxies discovered near quasars at redshifts exceeding 6 have star-formation rates that are high enough to explain the massive elliptical galaxies known to exist at redshifts of about 4.

R. Decarli, F. Walter, B. P. Venemans, E. Bañados, F. Bertoldi, C. Carilli, X. Fan, E. P. Farina, C. Mazzucchelli, D. Riechers + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22358

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量子物理学: 低温原子フェルミ・ハバード反強磁性体

A cold-atom Fermi–Hubbard antiferromagnet p.462

An antiferromagnet with a correlation length that encompasses the whole system is created with the aid of quantum gas microscopy of cold atoms in an optical lattice.

Anton Mazurenko, Christie S. Chiu, Geoffrey Ji, Maxwell F. Parsons, Márton Kanász-Nagy, Richard Schmidt, Fabian Grusdt, Eugene Demler, Daniel Greif & Markus Greiner

doi: 10.1038/nature22362

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環境科学: 11の主要な自動車市場におけるディーゼル関連窒素酸化物の過剰排出の影響と軽減

Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets p.467

Across markets accounting for 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, more than a third of diesel nitrogen oxide emissions are in excess of certification limits, causing many deaths.

Susan C. Anenberg, Joshua Miller, Ray Minjares, Li Du, Daven K. Henze, Forrest Lacey, Christopher S. Malley, Lisa Emberson, Vicente Franco, Zbigniew Klimont + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22086

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地球科学: 太平洋プレートの二重ホットスポット火山列の同時出現とその原因

The concurrent emergence and causes of double volcanic hotspot tracks on the Pacific plate p.472

The emergence of geographically and geochemically distinct double volcanic chains on the Pacific plate coincides with a recent azimuthal change in the motion of the plate.

T. D. Jones, D. R. Davies, I. H. Campbell, G. Iaffaldano, G. Yaxley, S. C. Kramer & C. R. Wilson

doi: 10.1038/nature22054

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神経科学: 逆行性標識と遺伝子プロファイリングで明らかになった視索前野睡眠ニューロン

Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling p.477

Identification of sleep-active and sleep-promoting neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus using neural projection tracing tools to target this population among a group of intermingled neurons, all with various functions.

Shinjae Chung, Franz Weber, Peng Zhong, Chan Lek Tan, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Kevin T. Beier, Nikolai Hörmann, Wei-Cheng Chang, Zhe Zhang, Johnny Phong Do + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22350

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ウイルス学: ネッタイシマカでの進化によるジカウイルス感染力の上昇

Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes p.482

A mutation that increases the secretion of Zika virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in infected hosts enhances the ability of the virus to infect its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti and might have contributed to the recent Zika epidemic.

Yang Liu, Jianying Liu, Senyan Du, Chao Shan, Kaixiao Nie, Rudian Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Renli Zhang, Tao Wang, Cheng-Feng Qin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22365

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植物生物学: 植物では翻訳の全体的な再プログラム化が免疫調節の基盤の1つとなる

Global translational reprogramming is a fundamental layer of immune regulation in plants p.487

Global translatome analysis shows that plants also modify their translational output—independently of the changes in transcriptional output—to establish pattern-triggered immunity.

Guoyong Xu, George H. Greene, Heejin Yoo, Lijing Liu, Jorge Marqués, Jonathan Motley & Xinnian Dong

doi: 10.1038/nature22371

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植物生物学: uORFを介した翻訳は、遺伝子改変植物で適応度コストを課さずに病害抵抗性を可能にする

uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance without fitness costs p.491

In both laboratory and field studies, engineering translational control of immune mediator production in Arabidopsis and rice confers disease resistance, without compromising plant fitness.

Guoyong Xu, Meng Yuan, Chaoren Ai, Lijing Liu, Edward Zhuang, Sargis Karapetyan, Shiping Wang & Xinnian Dong

doi: 10.1038/nature22372

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がん: 腫瘍関連マクロファージでのPD-1の発現はファゴサイトーシスと腫瘍免疫を抑制する

PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumour immunity p.495

Mouse and human tumour-associated macrophages express PD-1, which increases with cancer stage and induces decreased phagocytosis by macrophages; by contrast, PD-L1 removal increases phagocytosis in vivo, decreases tumour burden and increases survival of mice.

Sydney R. Gordon, Roy L. Maute, Ben W. Dulken, Gregor Hutter, Benson M. George, Melissa N. McCracken, Rohit Gupta, Jonathan M. Tsai, Rahul Sinha, Daniel Corey + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22396

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がん: 骨髄性白血病におけるBCAA代謝の再プログラム化によるがんのプログレッション

Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia p.500

BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

Ayuna Hattori, Makoto Tsunoda, Takaaki Konuma, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tamas Nagy, John Glushka, Fariba Tayyari, Daniel McSkimming, Natarajan Kannan, Arinobu Tojo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22314

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生物工学: ヒトインタラクトームの構造が明らかにするタンパク質共同体と疾患ネットワーク

Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks p.505

Affinity purification–mass spectrometry elucidates protein interaction networks and co-complexes to build, to our knowledge, the largest experimentally derived human protein interaction network so far, termed BioPlex 2.0.

Edward L. Huttlin, Raphael J. Bruckner, Joao A. Paulo, Joe R. Cannon, Lily Ting, Kurt Baltier, Greg Colby, Fana Gebreab, Melanie P. Gygi, Hannah Parzen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22366

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