目次

Editorials

遺伝子編集技術CRISPRが、進化発生生物学研究にも革命をもたらすかもしれない。

CRISPR helps evo-devo scientists to unpick the origins of adaptions p.249

Modern gene-editing tools are being used to understand the mechanisms of evolution.

doi: 10.1038/536249b

稀少疾患の研究には、稀少な遺伝的変異についての大規模でオープンなデータベースが大きな力になる。

Rare rewards p.249

A catalogue of genetic information from some 60,000 people reveals unexpected surprises — and highlights the need to make genomic data publicly accessible to aid studies of rare diseases.

doi: 10.1038/536249a

News

キューバでは、長年徹底してきた蚊媒介感染症対策が、ジカウイルスの蔓延阻止にも効力を。

Mosquito guns and heavy fines: how Cuba kept Zika at bay for so long p.257

It is one of the last Caribbean countries to get hit.

doi: 10.1038/536257a

イスラエルの研究者が、ホーキング放射を発しているように見える人工ブラックホールを作製。

Artificial black hole creates its own version of Hawking radiation p.258

Result could be closest thing yet to an observation of the bizarre phenomenon.

doi: 10.1038/536258a

トランプ米国大統領候補が主張するメキシコとの国境の壁建設は、野生生物を危険にさらす恐れが。

Trump’s border-wall pledge threatens delicate desert ecosystems p.260

Ecologists fear plan to seal off the United States from Mexico would put wildlife at risk.

doi: 10.1038/536260a

アラブ初のノーベル賞受賞者Ahmed Zewailの死去で、エジプトの科学技術都市の今後に懸念が。

Nobel laureate’s death highlights struggles at Egyptian science hub p.260

Cash-strapped Zewail City of Science and Technology is the legacy of Arab chemist Ahmed Zewail.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20408

日本のニュートリノ実験(T2K実験)で、物質・反物質の非対称性の謎を解く手掛かりが得られた可能性が。

Morphing neutrinos provide clue to antimatter mystery p.261

Excitement rises over chance of new physics from particle-du-jour.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20405

News Features

ポリマー:プラスチックの海

Bottles, bags, ropes and toothbrushes: the struggle to track ocean plastics p.263

世界の海に大量のプラスチックがたまっていることは知られているが、どこに、どのような状態で存在し、どのような害があるかは分かっていない。

doi: 10.1038/536263a

ポリマー:ファンタスティック・プラスチック

The plastics revolution: how chemists are pushing polymers to new limits p.266

現代の生活のほぼ全ての場面で使われているポリマーの限界が、新世代のプラスチックの研究によってさらに広がりつつある。

doi: 10.1038/536266a

News & Views

回顧:リビングポリマーの60年

In retrospect: Sixty years of living polymers p.276

一群の「リビング」重合反応が1950年代に開発されたことは、高分子の分子量分布を制御する方法へとつながり、高分子科学の分野に大きな変革を引き起こした。その影響は現在にも及んでいる。

doi: 10.1038/536276a

ヒト・ゲノミクス:遺伝的変動を徹底的に調べる

Human genomics: A deep dive into genetic variation p.277

エキソームは、ゲノムの中のタンパク質をコードしている領域である。14の研究に由来する6万706人のエキソームの塩基配列を収集したデータを使って、ヒトでの遺伝的変動についての綿密な考察がなされた。

doi: 10.1038/536277a

神経科学:眠りへのスイッチを押す

Neuroscience: Flipping the sleep switch p.278

一群の睡眠促進ニューロンをドーパミンシグナルの伝達によって不活性化すると、ショウジョウバエでは2種類のカリウムチャネルタンパク質での変化に依存して、急性的あるいは慢性的な覚醒状態がもたらされることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature18918

触媒:見つけにくい活性部位が明るみに

Catalysis: Elusive active site in focus p.280

鉄を含む触媒の活性部位が突き止められた。これによって、自動車の燃料になると考えられているメタノールへと、メタンを室温で変換する反応に実際に役立ちそうな触媒が設計されることが期待されている。

doi: 10.1038/536280a

哺乳類の発生:細胞分化を推し進める機械的性質

Mammalian development: Mechanics drives cell differentiation p.281

哺乳類の胚発生の際に細胞が最初の系譜決定を行う仕組みを説明する仮説は複数存在する。全てを包括する1つの機構を考えることで、これらの本質的に異なるモデルを統一できることが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature18920

物性物理学:雲隠れする超伝導電子

Condensed-matter physics: Superconducting electrons go missing p.282

電荷キャリア密度が高いオーバードープされた高温超伝導体の性質はすでに解明されたと考えられてきた。だが1つの実験が、このような系の量子物理学的性質に関する我々の知識に対して疑問を投げ掛けている。

doi: 10.1038/536282a

Articles

ゲノミクス:ヒト6万706人におけるタンパク質コード領域の遺伝的変動の解析

Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans OPEN p.285

Exome sequencing data from 60,706 people of diverse geographic ancestry is presented, providing insight into genetic variation across populations, and illuminating the relationship between DNA variants and human disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature19057

神経科学:概日ニューロンのフィードバックがショウジョウバエの睡眠–活動のプロファイルを制御する

Circadian neuron feedback controls the Drosophila sleep–activity profile p.292

A subset of dorsal clock neurons are identified in Drosophila as sleep-promoting cells, which participate in a feedback loop with pacemaker neurons to drive both midday siesta and night-time sleep.

doi: 10.1038/nature19097

がん:マウス皮膚がんのイニシエーションに至るクローン動態の解明

Defining the clonal dynamics leading to mouse skin tumour initiation p.298

Skin stem cells, but not their progenitors, are able to form tumours owing to the ability of oncogene-targeted stem cells to increase symmetric self-renewing division and a higher p53-dependent resistance to apoptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature19069

生化学:活性化RING E3/E2–SUMO複合体における基質の捕捉

Capturing a substrate in an activated RING E3/E2–SUMO complex p.304

A new method based on protein engineering to trap an intact complex between Siz1, SUMO-bound E2, and PCNA for structure determination.

doi: 10.1038/nature19071

Letters

物性物理学:オーバードープ銅酸化物の臨界温度の超流動密度依存性

Dependence of the critical temperature in overdoped copper oxides on superfluid density p.309

The scaling law for the critical temperature and zero-temperature stiffness in an overdoped copper oxide semiconductor does not conform to the standard Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer description.

doi: 10.1038/nature19061

太陽光発電材料:高効率の二次元ルドルスデン・ポッパー型ペロブスカイト太陽電池

High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite solar cells p.312

Thin-film solar cells were fabricated using layered two-dimensional perovskites with near-single-crystalline out-of-plane alignment, which facilitates efficient charge transport leading to greatly improved power conversion efficiency with technologically relevant stability to light exposure, humidity and heat stress.

doi: 10.1038/nature18306

触媒:鉄含有ゼオライトにおける低温メタン水酸化の活性部位

The active site of low-temperature methane hydroxylation in iron-containing zeolites p.317

Iron-containing zeolites have an exceptional ability to convert methane into methanol, but their active site have been hard to study; now, magnetic circular dichroism has been used to explore the reactive species, providing a technique that should be generally applicable, and revealing the value of constraining active sites within a lattice to improve catalyst functionality.

doi: 10.1038/nature19059

触媒:金属光酸化還元触媒によるカルボン酸とハロゲン化アルキルのsp3sp3クロスカップリング

Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides p.322

In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for many primary and secondary carboxylic acids. The merit of this coupling strategy is illustrated by the synthesis of the pharmaceutical tirofiban in four steps from commercially available starting materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature19056

地球力学:地球核からのマントル成分の離溶によって駆動される初期地球ダイナモ

An early geodynamo driven by exsolution of mantle components from Earth’s core p.326

Experiments show that magnesium oxide can dissolve in core-forming metallic melts at very high temperatures; core formation models suggest that a giant impact during Earth’s accretion could have contributed large amounts of magnesium to the early core, the subsequent exsolution of which would have generated enough gravitational energy to power an early geodynamo and produce an ancient magnetic field.

doi: 10.1038/nature18594

行動遺伝学:イオンチャネル遺伝子のイントロン内のレトロエレメントに起因する求愛歌の天然の差異

Natural courtship song variation caused by an intronic retroelement in an ion channel gene p.329

Natural variation in the courtship song of Drosophila is mapped to the intronic insertion of a retroelement at the slowpoke locus, which encodes an ion channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature19093

神経科学:睡眠恒常性スイッチの作動機構

Operation of a homeostatic sleep switch p.333

Sleep-promoting neurons in Drosophila are shown to switch between electrical activity and silence as a function of sleep need; the switch is operated by dopamine and involves the antagonistic regulation of two potassium channels.

doi: 10.1038/nature19055

神経科学:ウィリアムズ症候群のヒト神経発達モデル

A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome p.338

A human neurodevelopmental model fills the current knowledge gap in the cellular biology of Williams syndrome and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain.

doi: 10.1038/nature19067

発生生物学:収縮性領域の非対称分裂が細胞の位置決定と運命指定を結び付ける

Asymmetric division of contractile domains couples cell positioning and fate specification p.344

Here, a combination of biophysical measurement, modelling, and genetic and experimental manipulation of cell contractile components is used to analyse the formation of the inner cell mass in the early mouse embryo.

doi: 10.1038/nature18958

ウイルス学:HIV-1はキャプシド中の動的性質を持った小孔を使ってヌクレオチドを運び込み、キャプシド内部でのDNA合成の原料とする

HIV-1 uses dynamic capsid pores to import nucleotides and fuel encapsidated DNA synthesis p.349

Size-selective pores in the HIV-1 capsid hexamer recruit nucleotides, thereby allowing reverse transcription to take place inside the capsid.

doi: 10.1038/nature19098

構造生物学:哺乳類呼吸鎖複合体Iの構造

Structure of mammalian respiratory complex I p.354

Electron cryomicroscopy structures are provided for all core and supernumerary protein subunits of mammalian complex I, a 45-subunit enzyme that powers eukaryotic respiration.

doi: 10.1038/nature19095

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