目次

Editorials

環境改善によりオオシモフリエダシャクの黒い個体が姿を消しつつある中、黒化の遺伝的要因がようやく明らかになってきた。

Dark satanic wings p.5

Just as the dark-coloured pepper moth disappears from northern England, researchers are finally getting to the bottom of how it gained its colour.

doi: 10.1038/534005a

米国は、有害な化学物質の規制法だけでなく、炭素排出についても見直すべきだ。

Toxic control p.5

The United States is overhauling its chemicals law; now it must tackle carbon emissions.

doi: 10.1038/534005b

望遠鏡で見えてくる世界は、科学だけでなく、文化の面にまで広がっている。

Seeing farther p.6

Our fascination with telescopes and the worlds they reveal spreads beyond science into culture.

doi: 10.1038/534006a

News

米国が現在のサンゴ礁の状況についてより広い範囲で把握するため、衛星と航空機を使った空からの調査計画を。

Marine ecologists take to the skies to study coral reefs p.13

Satellites and research aeroplanes could offer a better, broader view of coral health.

doi: 10.1038/534013a

米英独の主要助成機関が、オープンアクセス誌eLifeの支援を継続へ。

Biology’s big funders boost eLife with £25-million investment p.14

Free open-access journal supported until 2022.

doi: 10.1038/534014a

太陽系探査の新しい方法として、超小型衛星の活用に期待が。

Tiny ‘chipsat’ spacecraft set for first flight p.15

Launch in July will test new way to explore the Solar System — and beyond.

doi: 10.1038/534015a

米国エネルギー省が、自国の議会に対し当面はITER(国際熱核融合実験炉)計画への出資を続けるべきだとの提言を。

US advised to stick with troubled fusion reactor ITER p.16

The Department of Energy says the US should fund ITER until 2018, and then re-evaluate its progress.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19994

スーパーコンピューターによって数学の長年の難問が証明されたが、そのデータの膨大さに、もはや数学ではないという声が。

Two-hundred-terabyte maths proof is largest ever p.17

A computer cracks the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem — but is it really maths?

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19990

米国の有害物質規制法(TSCA)の改正案では、政府により強い権限が。

Why the historic deal to expand US chemical regulation matters p.18

A rare bipartisan compromise endorsed by industry and the White House will give the US government new authority to ensure that chemicals are safe.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19973

News Features

研究:韓国が夢見るノーベル賞

Why South Korea is the world’s biggest investor in research p.20

韓国ほど、経済生産レベルに対して科学研究に資金を注ぎ込んでいる国は、世界でも他にはないが、目標の実現には資金以外にも必要なことがある。

doi: 10.1038/534020a

健康:くしゃみはどこまで

The snot-spattered experiments that show how far sneezes really spread p.24

米国マサチューセッツ工科大学の数学者Lydia Bourouibaは、高速ビデオを使ってくしゃみや咳の軌跡を分析し、病気が広がるしくみを調べている。

doi: 10.1038/534024a

News & Views

惑星科学:冥王星の多角形地形が明らかに

Planetary science: Pluto's polygons explained p.40

冥王星にあるスプートニク平原という盆地は窒素氷のシートに覆われていて、その表面は差し渡しが数十キロメートルの不規則な形の多角形に分かれている。今回、2つの研究によって、活発な対流現象がこのような多角形を作り出すことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/534040a

微生物学:持続生残菌を一掃する

Microbiology: Pumping persisters p.41

薬剤耐性菌は、そのTolCタンパク質複合体によって抗生物質を細胞からくみ出してしまうことが分かった。この知見は、持続生存菌と呼ばれる一部の細菌の細胞が抗生物質の投与に直面しても生き残る仕組みについての手掛かりを与えてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/nature18442

構造生物学:植物の光化学系IIのスナップ写真

Structural biology: A photo shoot of plant photosystem II p.42

植物の光化学系IIは、光合成を行う際に太陽光のエネルギーを使って水を酸化する。この重要な超複合体の高分解能構造が今回、低温電子顕微鏡を使って得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature18438

考古学:ネアンデルタール人が作った地下構造物

Archaeology: Neanderthals built underground p.43

フランスの洞窟内の奥深くで約17万5000年前の構造物が見つかったことは、ネアンデルタール人たちが危険を顧みずに地下に進み、ヒト族が作製した中で最古の構造物のいくつかを作ったことを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/nature18440

地球物理学:地球の核という問題

Geophysics: Earth's core problem p.45

極端な高圧・高温条件下で鉄の電気抵抗と熱電導率を測定する実験の結果から、地球の外核の性質についての異論の多い数値シミュレーション結果に対する、これまでなかった解釈が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/534045a

Articles

がんゲノミクス:乳がん560例の全ゲノム塩基配列解読で明らかになった体細胞変異の全体像

Landscape of somatic mutations in 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences p.47

Whole-genome sequencing of tumours from 560 breast cancer cases provides a comprehensive genome-wide view of recurrent somatic mutations and mutation frequencies across both protein coding and non-coding regions; several mutational signatures in these cancer genomes are associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 function and defective homologous-recombination-based DNA repair.

doi: 10.1038/nature17676

がんプロテオミクス:プロテオゲノミクスによって乳がんにおいて体細胞変異とシグナル伝達が結び付けられた

Proteogenomics connects somatic mutations to signalling in breast cancer p.55

Quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of genomically annotated human breast cancer samples elucidates functional consequences of somatic mutations, narrows candidate nominations for driver genes within large deletions and amplified regions, and identifies potential therapeutic targets.

doi: 10.1038/nature18003

構造生物学:NMDA受容体の活性化とイフェンプロジルによる阻害の機序

Activation of NMDA receptors and the mechanism of inhibition by ifenprodil p.63

X-ray crystallography, single-particle electron cryomicroscopy and electrophysiology were used to study the conformational changes that take place during the activation and inhibition of a mammalian GluN1b–GluN2B N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor.

doi: 10.1038/nature17679

構造生物学:ホウレンソウ光化学系II–LHCII超複合体の3.2 Å分解能での構造

Structure of spinach photosystem II–LHCII supercomplex at 3.2 Å resolution p.69

A high-resolution structural study sheds light on processes of energy transfer within the photosynthetic water-splitting machinery of plants.

doi: 10.1038/nature18020

Letters

宇宙物理学:はくちょう座V404星の激しいアウトバースト時の円盤風によるブラックホール降着の調節

Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni p.75

A sustained, neutral wind from the outer accretion disk is observed in the transient black hole V404 Cygni during a violent outburst; this unusual wind, which expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin, probably regulates the outburst evolution of the black hole.

doi: 10.1038/nature17446

惑星科学:冥王星の多角形地形を説明する活発な対流

Vigorous convection as the explanation for Pluto’s polygonal terrain p.79

A parameterized convection model and observations of the puzzling polygons of the Sputnik Planum region of Pluto are used to compute the Rayleigh number of its nitrogen ice and show that it is vigorously convecting, kilometres thick and about a million years old.

doi: 10.1038/nature18016

惑星科学:揮発性の窒素氷に富む層の対流が冥王星の地質学的な活力を駆動する

Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto’s geological vigour p.82

The volatile-ice-filled basin informally named Sputnik Planum is central to Pluto’s geological activity; this ice layer is organized into cells or polygons, and it is now shown that convective overturn in a several-kilometre-thick layer of solid nitrogen can explain both the presence of the cells and their great width.

doi: 10.1038/nature18289

超高速フォトニクス:固体におけるアト秒非線形分極と光–物質エネルギー移動

Attosecond nonlinear polarization and light–matter energy transfer in solids p.86

Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz techniques have provided experimental access to this important observable up to frequencies of several terahertz. Here we demonstrate that attosecond metrology extends the resolution to petahertz frequencies of visible light. Attosecond polarization spectroscopy allows measurement of the response of the electronic system of silica to strong (more than one volt per ångström) few-cycle optical (about 750 nanometres) fields. Our proof-of-concept study provides time-resolved insight into the attosecond nonlinear polarization and the light–matter energy transfer dynamics behind the optical Kerr effect and multi-photon absorption. Timing the nonlinear polarization relative to the driving laser electric field with sub-30-attosecond accuracy yields direct quantitative access to both the reversible and irreversible energy exchange between visible–infrared light and electrons. Quantitative determination of dissipation within a signal manipulation cycle of only a few femtoseconds duration (by measurement and ab initio calculation) reveals the feasibility of dielectric optical switching at clock rates above 100 terahertz. The observed sub-femtosecond rise of energy transfer from the field to the material (for a peak electric field strength exceeding 2.5 volts per ångström) in turn indicates the viability of petahertz-bandwidth metrology with a solid-state device.

doi: 10.1038/nature17650

大気化学:二次有機エアロゾルの大規模生成源としてのオイルサンド事業

Oil sands operations as a large source of secondary organic aerosols p.91

The evaporation and atmospheric oxidation of low-volatility organic vapours from mined oil sands material is shown to be responsible for a large amount of secondary organic aerosol mass—which affects air quality and climate change—observed during airborne measurements in Canada.

doi: 10.1038/nature17646

地球物理学:地球の核の条件下での鉄の電気抵抗率の実験的決定

Experimental determination of the electrical resistivity of iron at Earth’s core conditions p.95

Using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell to measure the electrical resistivity of iron under the high temperature and pressure conditions of the Earth’s core yields a value that means Earth’s core has high thermal conductivity, suggesting that its inner core is less than 0.7 billion years old, much younger than thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature17957

地球物理学:惑星の核の条件での固体鉄の熱伝導率の直接測定

Direct measurement of thermal conductivity in solid iron at planetary core conditions p.99

The thermal conductivity of solid iron at the pressure and temperature conditions that prevail in the cores of planets is measured directly using a dynamically laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, yielding values that support findings from ancient magnetized rocks that suggest Earth’s magnetic field has persisted since the Earth’s earliest history.

doi: 10.1038/nature18009

進化遺伝学:英国のオオシモフリエダシャクの工業暗化をもたらした変異は転位因子の挿入だった

The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element p.102

The mutation responsible for the black carbonaria morph of the peppered moth is identified as a transposable element within the cortex gene.

doi: 10.1038/nature17951

進化遺伝学:チョウおよびガの擬態や隠蔽を制御するcortex遺伝子

The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths p.106

Wing colour patterning of multiple species in the butterfly genus Heliconius is controlled by differential expression of the gene cortex, a member of a conserved family of cell cycle regulators.

doi: 10.1038/nature17961

考古学:フランス南西部ブルニケル洞窟の奥にある初期ネアンデルタール人の構築物

Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France p.111

Two ring-like structures made of low walls of broken stalagmite pieces, deep in a cave in France, are described and dated to around 176,000 years ago, suggesting human-made construction within the period of early Neanderthals, although the function of the structures remains conjectural.

doi: 10.1038/nature18291

神経科学:共通する神経細胞群によって時間的に近接した別個の文脈記憶が結び付く

A shared neural ensemble links distinct contextual memories encoded close in time p.115

A similar neural ensemble participates in the encoding of two distinct memories, resulting in the recall of one memory increasing the likelihood of recalling the other, but only if those memories occur very closely in time—within a day rather than across a week.

doi: 10.1038/nature17955

心疾患:Pitx2は心臓傷害後に抗酸化応答を活性化して心臓の修復を促進する

Pitx2 promotes heart repair by activating the antioxidant response after cardiac injury p.119

The transcription factor Pitx2 is upregulated in injured neonatal and Hippo-deficient mouse hearts, where it interacts with the Hippo effector protein Yap to activate reactive oxygen species scavengers, thus preventing oxidative damage of the heart.

doi: 10.1038/nature17959

生理学:脂質応答性の非コードRNA LeXisによるコレステロール代謝のフィードバック調節

Feedback modulation of cholesterol metabolism by the lipid-responsive non-coding RNA LeXis p.124

The activation of lipid X receptors (LXRs) in mouse liver not only promotes cholesterol efflux but also inhibits cholesterol synthesis simultaneously; this is mediated by the lipid-responsive long non-coding RNA LeXis, which is induced by a Western diet and orchestrates crosstalk between LXRs and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature17674

がん:変異体選択的なアロステリック阻害剤によってEGFR(T790M)、EGFR(C797S)による薬剤耐性を克服する

Overcoming EGFR(T790M) and EGFR(C797S) resistance with mutant-selective allosteric inhibitors p.129

An allosteric inhibitor, EAI045, is reported that is selective for certain drug-resistant EGFR mutants, but spares the wild-type receptor; combination therapy of EAI045 with EGFR-dimerization-blocking antibodies is effective in mouse models of lung cancer driven by mutant versions of EGFR that are resistant to all previously developed inhibitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature17960

リボソーム:後期段階にある核内60Sリボソーム前駆体の構造から明らかになった集合因子の多様な役割

Diverse roles of assembly factors revealed by structures of late nuclear pre-60S ribosomes p.133

Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex process in eukaryotes, involving temporally and spatially regulated ribosomal protein (r-protein) binding and ribosomal RNA remodelling events in the nucleolus, nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Hundreds of assembly factors, organized into sequential functional groups, facilitate and guide the maturation process into productive assembly branches in and across different cellular compartments. However, the precise mechanisms by which these assembly factors function are largely unknown. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to characterize the structures of yeast nucleoplasmic pre-60S particles affinity-purified using the epitope-tagged assembly factor Nog2. Our data pinpoint the locations and determine the structures of over 20 assembly factors, which are enriched in two areas: an arc region extending from the central protuberance to the polypeptide tunnel exit, and the domain including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) that separates 5.8S and 25S ribosomal RNAs. In particular, two regulatory GTPases, Nog2 and Nog1, act as hub proteins to interact with multiple, distant assembly factors and functional ribosomal RNA elements, manifesting their critical roles in structural remodelling checkpoints and nuclear export. Moreover, our snapshots of compositionally and structurally different pre-60S intermediates provide essential mechanistic details for three major remodelling events before nuclear export: rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein, construction of the active centre and ITS2 removal. The rich structural information in our structures provides a framework to dissect molecular roles of diverse assembly factors in eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

doi: 10.1038/nature17942

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