目次

Editorials

過去の事例について考えることは、現在の科学のより良い理解につながる。

Second thoughts p.291

Revisting the past can help to inform ideas of the present.

doi: 10.1038/533291b

ジカウイルスの脅威が一掃されるまで、世界は研究と対策をおろそかにしてはならない。

Zika must remain a high priority p.291

Although the evidence suggests that the Olympic Games are safe to proceed, the global health community must not let the Zika virus fade from the research agenda until the threat is wiped out.

doi: 10.1038/533291a

臨床試験データの共有を促進するため、より厳しい規制を政府主導で作るべきだ。

Open medicine p.292

Governments need to tighten regulation if the sharing of clinical-trial data is to succeed.

doi: 10.1038/533292a

News

オリーブに広がる深刻な細菌感染症に悩まされているイタリアで、封じ込めに向けてようやく一歩が。

Gridlock over Italy’s olive tree deaths starts to ease p.299

A court ruling paves the way for disease-containment measures, but the risk of spread to other regions and nations remains.

doi: 10.1038/533299a

ブラジルでは、科学大臣が廃されて他の職務との兼任に格下げとなり、予算削減に泣く科学界にさらなる追い打ちを。

Demotion of science ministry angers beleaguered Brazilian researchers p.301

New President Michel Temer ’ who replaces impeached Dilma Rousseff ’ is fusing the science and telecommunications ministries.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19910

英国のRRSデイビッド・アッテンボロー卿号をはじめとして、新世代の極地調査船計画がさまざまな国で進んでおり、極地科学の追い風に。

Boaty McBoatfleet: British ship joins wave of rugged polar vessels p.302

Ice-going vessels like Britain’s RRS Sir David Attenborough ’ named Boaty McBoatface by the Internet ’ are being built across the world.

doi: 10.1038/533302a

左巻きDNAを複製・転写する人工酵素が作られ、「鏡像異性生命体」が一歩身近に。

Mirror-image enzyme copies looking-glass DNA p.303

Synthetic polymerase is a small step along the way to mirrored life forms.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19918

期待されていた米国のナノ技術企業が倒産し、ナノ医薬品の開発に影が。

Bankruptcy filing worries developers of nanoparticle cancer drugs p.304

Financial woes of leading biotech firm highlight challenges of developing innovative therapies.

doi: 10.1038/533304a

News Features

材料科学:金属の混合学

Mixed-up metals make for stronger, tougher, stretchier alloys p.306

既存品を上回る強度・靭性・伸展性を持つ合金が、簡単な新しい方法で次々と作られている。

doi: 10.1038/533306a

農業:質素な農業

The race to create super-crops p.308

自給自足を可能にする「スーパー作物」の開発には、遺伝子組換え技術を用いるよりも古典的な育種技術の方が勝っている。

doi: 10.1038/533308a

News & Views

フォーラム:神経科学:バーチャルリアリティーを論じる

Neuroscience: Virtual reality explored p.324

神経科学の分野では動物行動の研究を容易にするためにバーチャルリアリティーを使うことが多くなっているが、仮想世界での行動が実生活での行動を模倣したものなのかどうかについては議論が続いている。この手法の強みと限界について専門家に論じてもらった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17899

創薬:化学合成法を使って耐性菌の進化と戦う

Drug discovery: Fighting evolution with chemical synthesis p.326

合成戦略の進歩によって、自然界に存在する抗生物質に類似した多様な構造の薬剤を容易に作れるようになった。これらは、薬剤耐性菌に対する闘いでの新しい攻撃手段となる。

doi: 10.1038/533326a

ニュートリノ物理学:フレーバーを慎重に混ぜ合わせる

Neutrino physics: A deliberate mix-up in flavour p.327

ニュートリノは「フレーバー」によって3種類に分けられ、反ニュートリノも同様に分けられる。いずれの種類のニュートリノも、飛行中に別のフレーバーへと変化する。異なる種類のニュートリノの混合に関する観測結果は、この宇宙が反物質ではなく物質からなる理由を説明する助けとなるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/533327a

再生生物学:肢の再成長には2種類のシグナルが必要

Regeneration: Limb regrowth takes two p.328

サンショウウオでは、切除された四肢などの複数種の臓器が再生可能である。今回、メキシコサンショウウオを使った実験で、2種類のシグナル伝達分子の間のクロストークが肢再生を調節していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17889

宇宙物理学:照射を受ける褐色矮星

Astrophysics: Illuminating brown dwarfs p.330

褐色矮星と呼ばれる天体の質量は、恒星と惑星の中間である。近傍の星からの照射を受けている高温の褐色矮星の観測は、液体の存在する惑星天体の大気についての我々の知識に欠けているものを補う助けとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/533330a

構造生物学:転写開始過程のスナップショット

Structural biology: Snapshots of transcription initiation p.331

RNAポリメラーゼIIは、他の複数の転写因子と共に働いてDNAの転写を開始する。今回、ヒトおよび酵母の細胞での転写過程に関わる構造が高分解能で解析された。

doi: 10.1038/nature18437

Analysis

がんゲノミクス:がん細胞株パネルの再現可能な薬理ゲノミクス的プロファイリング

Reproducible pharmacogenomic profiling of cancer cell line panels p.333

Large-scale analyses of the drug sensitivity of cancer cell lines have been previously reported to yield conflicting conclusions; this Analysis uses independently generated data to demonstrate that consistency can be achieved if key laboratory and data analysis practices are considered when future studies are undertaken.

doi: 10.1038/nature17987

Articles

抗生物質:新規マクロライド系抗生物質探索のための構築基盤

A platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics p.338

A practical, fully synthetic route to macrolide antibiotics via the convergent assembly of simple chemical building blocks is described; more than 300 new macrolide antibiotic candidates have been synthesized using this approach, a number of which are active against bacterial strains that are resistant to currently used antibiotics.

doi: 10.1038/nature17967

微生物学:T4バクテリオファージ尾部基盤の構造とそれがシース収縮開始に果たす機能

Structure of the T4 baseplate and its function in triggering sheath contraction p.346

A tour-de-force of structural biology solves the structure of the macromolecular injection machinery used to deliver a phage genome into a bacterium.

doi: 10.1038/nature17971

構造生物学:転写開始複合体の構造によって説明されるDNA開裂機構

Transcription initiation complex structures elucidate DNA opening p.353

The cryo-electron microscopy structures of yeast initiation complexes containing the transcription factors TBP, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF and containing either closed or open promoter DNA are reported, providing mechanistic insights into DNA opening and template-strand loading.

doi: 10.1038/nature17990

構造生物学:ヒト転写プロモーター二本鎖開裂のニア原子レベルでの可視化

Near-atomic resolution visualization of human transcription promoter opening p.359

Cryo-electron microscopy structural models of the human pre-initiation complex at all major steps of transcription initiation at near atomic-level resolution are presented, providing new mechanistic insights into the processes of promoter melting and transcription-bubble formation, as well as an almost complete proposed structural model of all of the pre-initiation complex components and their interactions with DNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature17970

Letters

宇宙物理学:降着を受けている白色矮星の伴星である照射を受ける褐色矮星

An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf p.366

Spectroscopic detection and characterization of an irradiated substellar donor planet in an accreting white-dwarf binary system reveals a donor mass of 0.055 ± 0.008 solar masses, an average spectral type of L1 ± 1 and an average irradiation-induced temperature difference between the dayside and nightside of 57 kelvin.

doi: 10.1038/nature17952

材料化学:コヒーレントに動的でオーセチックな二次元タンパク質結晶の自己集合

Self-assembly of coherently dynamic, auxetic, two-dimensional protein crystals p.369

Mutants of the C4-symmetric protein RhuA were designed to self-assemble into two-dimensional crystalline lattices with precise spatial arrangements and patterns; the lattices of one of the variants are auxetic and deform perpendicularly to an applied force in a way that is contrary to what is generally expected in typical materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature17633

有機化学:鉄(III)触媒を用いたカルボニル–オレフィンメタセシス

Iron(III)-catalysed carbonyl–olefin metathesis p.374

The olefin metathesis reaction of two unsaturated substrates is one of the most powerful carbon–carbon-bond-forming reactions in organic chemistry. Specifically, the catalytic olefin metathesis reaction has led to profound developments in the synthesis of molecules relevant to the petroleum, materials, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. These reactions are characterized by their use of discrete metal alkylidene catalysts that operate via a well-established mechanism. While the corresponding carbonyl–olefin metathesis reaction can also be used to construct carbon–carbon bonds, currently available methods are scarce and severely hampered by either harsh reaction conditions or the required use of stoichiometric transition metals as reagents. To date, no general protocol for catalytic carbonyl–olefin metathesis has been reported. Here we demonstrate a catalytic carbonyl–olefin ring-closing metathesis reaction that uses iron, an Earth-abundant and environmentally benign transition metal, as a catalyst. This transformation accommodates a variety of substrates and is distinguished by its operational simplicity, mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis. We anticipate that these characteristics, coupled with the efficiency of this reaction, will allow for further advances in areas that have historically been enhanced by olefin metathesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature17432

気候科学:大気中のCO2濃度の変化が前期新生代の気候の主要な駆動力であった

Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate p.380

A reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 concentration from boron isotopes recorded in planktonic foraminifera examines climate–carbon interactions over the past tens of millions of years and confirms a strong linkage between climate and atmospheric CO2.

doi: 10.1038/nature17423

気候科学:内陸の底部浸食によって示される繰り返し起こったトッテン氷河の大規模な後退と前進

Repeated large-scale retreat and advance of Totten Glacier indicated by inland bed erosion p.385

The stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and its contribution to past sea-level rise are not well defined; in this paper, airborne geophysical data and ice-sheet models are used to show that the Totten Glacier has undergone large-scale retreats and advances, and that it could contribute several metres of sea-level rise in a fully retreated scenario.

doi: 10.1038/nature17447

進化:代謝の促進とヒトの脳サイズおよび生活史の進化

Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history p.390

Compared to other apes, humans live longer, reproduce faster and have larger brains; here, total energy expenditure is studied in humans and all species of great ape, and is shown to be significantly higher in humans, demonstrating that the human lineage has experienced an energy-boosting acceleration in metabolic rate.

doi: 10.1038/nature17654

生物地理学:深海の生物多様性パターンはエネルギーの利用可能性によって形作られる

Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability p.393

Depth-dependent patterns in ocean species diversity can be explained by latitudinal variations in energy availability, with shelf and upper-slope diversity increasing with thermal energy availability, and deep-sea diversity increasing with chemical energy availability; the discovery of these distinct patterns could help to guide the conservation and management of these remote ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17937

計算生物学:緑色蛍光タンパク質の局所的な適応度地形

Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein p.397

Comprehensive genotype–phenotype mapping of the green fluorescent protein shows that the local fitness peak is narrow, shaped by a high prevalence of epistatic interactions, providing for the loss of fluorescence when the joint effect of mutations exceeds a threshold.

doi: 10.1038/nature17995

神経科学:大脳基底核での運動速度の相反的かつ両方向的な制御

Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia p.402

Activity in the direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways can bidirectionally control the speed of movements that underlie reward-seeking actions in mice without affecting motivation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17639

再生生物学:FGF8とSHHは前後組織の相互作用に代わって肢再生を誘導する

FGF8 and SHH substitute for anterior–posterior tissue interactions to induce limb regeneration p.407

The long-standing puzzle of why salamander limb regeneration requires anterior and posterior tissue interaction has been solved by the demonstration that fibroblast growth factor 8 and sonic hedgehog are key anterior and posterior cross-inductive signals that drive regeneration.

doi: 10.1038/nature17972

内分泌学:高脂肪食誘発性肥満におけるニューロテンシンの必須の役割

An obligatory role for neurotensin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity p.411

Neurotensin, a peptide expressed in the enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine that is released upon fat ingestion, is shown to increase fatty acid absorption, with neurotensin-deficient mice being protected from obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

doi: 10.1038/nature17662

細胞生物学:有害なミトコンドリアゲノムはミトコンドリア折りたたみ不全タンパク質応答によって維持され増加する

Maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mitochondrial genome by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response p.416

In the context of mitochondrial genome heteroplasmy that causes defective oxidative phosphorylation in C. elegans, the ATFS-1-mediated mitochondrial unfolded protein response maintains the deleterious mitochondrial DNA in an attempt to recover oxidative phosphorylation activity and avoid cellular dysfunction.

doi: 10.1038/nature17989

生物工学:二本鎖DNA切断を伴わないゲノムDNA中の標的一塩基のプログラム可能な編集

Programmable editing of a target base in genomic DNA without double-stranded DNA cleavage p.420

CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing creates a double-stranded break in the target DNA, which can frequently generate random insertion or deletion of bases (indels); a new genome editing approach combining Cas9 with a cytidine deaminase is described here, which corrects point mutations more efficiently than canonical Cas9, while avoiding double-stranded breaks and indel formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17946

ウイルス学:熱的に安定なジカウイルスの構造

Structure of the thermally stable Zika virus p.425

The 3.7 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of Zika virus is presented, revealing a typical flavivirus architecture; in contrast to the related flavivirus dengue virus, Zika virus is thermally stable at 40 °C, and this structural stability may be a feature that helps it to survive in semen, saliva and urine.

doi: 10.1038/nature17994

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度