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Editorials

「急進化」概念を中心に据えたテロ対策やテロ研究では、証拠に基づいた広い視野からの中立な研究が求められる。

Root causes p.7

Research has a part to play in identifying the factors that breed terrorism.

doi: 10.1038/528007b

増加の一途をたどる科学系博士号の取得者の活躍の場を広げるために、大学院課程を改革すべきときだ。

Make the most of PhDs p.7

The number of people with science doctorates is rapidly increasing, but there are not enough academic jobs for them all. Graduate programmes should be reformed to meet students’ needs.

doi: 10.1038/528007a

研究テーマの選択に保守化とリスク回避の傾向が見られるが、科学者はそれぞれの立場でボトムアップの変革に努めなければならない。

Take more risks p.8

Scientific innovation is being smothered by a culture of conformity.

doi: 10.1038/528008a

News

幹細胞臨床試験に対する予算を承認したイタリア上院に対し、その選定が不透明であると批判が。

Italian scientists slam selection of stem-cell trial p.15

Senate assigns a clinical trial €3 million — but researchers want an open competition.

doi: 10.1038/528015a

マントルまでの掘削を目指した国際深海科学掘削計画に期待が。

Quest to drill into Earth’s mantle restarts p.16

Indian Ocean expedition resumes a six-decade campaign to bore right through the planet’s crust.

doi: 10.1038/528016a

LHCでは膨大なデータから新たな発見を見いだすために、人工知能を導入へ。

Artificial intelligence called in to tackle LHC data deluge p.18

Algorithms could aid discovery at Large Hadron Collider, but raise transparency concerns.

doi: 10.1038/528018a

自殺と脳構造・脳機能との因果関係を調べる臨床試験計画が。

Brain study seeks roots of suicide p.19

A clinical trial will look at the neurological structure and function of people who have attempted suicide.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18870

英国で、科学予算をインフレに合わせて増額させるという発表に安堵の声が。

UK scientists celebrate slight rise in research budget p.20

Science budget will rise with inflation amid cuts elsewhere, following government spending review.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18878

現世代のイスラム過激派から探る、ヨーロッパの若者たちが急進化する原因。

Terrorism science: 5 insights into jihad in Europe p.20

Terrorism is tough to study, but researchers have gleaned insights from the current generation of Islamist extremists.

doi: 10.1038/528020a

News Features

高等教育:博士号制度をより良いものにするために

How to build a better PhD p.22

博士課程の学生数に対して大学の研究ポストが少なすぎるという問題を解決するための、数々の案を紹介する。

doi: 10.1038/528022a

技術:ウエアラブル・ボティーセンサー

The inside story on wearable electronics p.26

大量のデータを集められる各種センサーを人体に取り付け、医療の改革を目指す研究が進められている。

doi: 10.1038/528026a

News & Views

核物理学:アルファ粒子同士の接近遭遇

Nuclear physics: Close encounters of the alpha kind p.42

2つのヘリウム原子核の衝突に関する計算が大きく進展したことで、炭素や酸素のような元素が星で形成された仕組みを定量的に解明する道が開かれ、星の進化モデルも改良された。

doi: 10.1038/528042a

生態学:生態系の海洋温暖化に対する脆弱性

Ecology: Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean warming p.43

多様な海洋生物種についての温度分布域の解析から、地球温暖化に対して生態学的群集が示す脆弱性は、温度変化の大きさよりも、群集に含まれる生物の生理学的性質の方に依存するところが大きい可能性が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16314

代謝:炎症は老化マウスの健康維持に役立つ

Metabolism: Inflammation keeps old mice healthy p.44

制御性T細胞と呼ばれる免疫細胞は、老化に伴って脂肪中に蓄積していく。このような細胞の抗炎症活性は、代謝における老化関連障害を悪化させるが、肥満については対照的な影響を及ぼすことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15648

過去を振り返る:1世紀に及ぶファージ研究から得られた教訓

In retrospect: A century of phage lessons p.46

細菌細胞に感染するウイルスについて最初の報告が行われてから100年が経過した。バクテリオファージはこの100年間を通じて、基礎生物学、生物工学やヒトの健康の研究に貢献してきており、それは100周年を祝うのに十分に値する。

doi: 10.1038/528046a

量子物理学:エンタングルメントを評価する

Quantum physics: Getting the measure of entanglement p.48

エンタングルメントエントロピーと呼ばれる属性は、相互に作用し合う粒子の量子状態を記述するのに役立つ。これがついに測定されたことは、量子系の解明をさらに進める道を開く。

doi: 10.1038/528048a

脳腫瘍:近所を見回る腫瘍細胞

Brain cancer: Tumour cells on neighbourhood watch p.49

一部の侵襲性の脳腫瘍で腫瘍細胞同士を連結する細管構造が見つかったことは、このようながんが広がる仕組みや治療に対する耐性を獲得する仕組みを明らかにするのにつながるだろう。

doi: 10.1038/nature15649

Perspectives

生物地球化学:持続可能な開発のための窒素管理

Managing nitrogen for sustainable development p.51

Careful management of nitrogen fertilizer usage is required to ensure world food security while limiting environmental degradation; an analysis of historical nitrogen use efficiency reveals socio-economic factors and technological innovations that have influenced a range of past national trends and that suggest ways to improve global food production and environmental stewardship by 2050.

doi: 10.1038/nature15743

生物地球化学:議論を呼ぶ土壌有機物の本質

The contentious nature of soil organic matter p.60

Instead of containing stable and chemically unique ‘humic substances’, as has been widely accepted, soil organic matter is a mixture of progressively decomposing organic compounds; this has broad implications for soil science and its applications.

doi: 10.1038/nature16069

生態学:土壌の生物多様性とヒトの健康

Soil biodiversity and human health p.69

Soil biodiversity sustains human health and its loss can be mitigated by sustainable management.

doi: 10.1038/nature15744

Analysis

がん:2つのがん細胞株データセット間に見られる薬理ゲノミクス的な一致

Pharmacogenomic agreement between two cancer cell line data sets p.84

n panels of cancer cell lines analysed for their response to drug libraries, some studies have proposed distinct pharmacological sensitivities for some cell lines while other studies have not seen the same trends; here the data in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer are reassessed, and the authors report a stronger degree of concordance between the two data sets than that in a previous study.

doi: 10.1038/nature15736

Articles

量子物理学:量子多体系のエンタングルメントエントロピーを測定する

Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system p.77

Entanglement, which describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, is very difficult to measure, especially in systems of itinerant particles; here spatial entanglement is measured for ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices.

doi: 10.1038/nature15750

生態学:全球の海洋動物相に見られる温度バイアスと温暖化に対する脆弱性

Thermal biases and vulnerability to warming in the world’s marine fauna p.88

How marine communities will respond to climate change depends on the thermal sensitivities of existing communities; existing reef communities do not show a perfect fit between current temperatures and the thermal niches of the species within them and this thermal bias is a major contributor to projected local species loss.

doi: 10.1038/nature16144

がん:脳腫瘍細胞は相互に接続し合って治療抵抗性に関わる機能性ネットワークを形成する

Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network p.93

Brain tumours are difficult to treat because of their propensity to infiltrate brain tissue; here long processes, or tumour microtubes, extended by astrocytomas are shown to promote brain infiltration and to create an interconnected network that enables multicellular communication and that protects the tumours from radiotherapy-induced cell death, suggesting that disruption of the network could be a new therapeutic approach.

doi: 10.1038/nature16071

システム生物学:大腸菌のオーバーフロー代謝はプロテオームの効率の良い割り当ての結果として起こる

Overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli results from efficient proteome allocation p.99

Using experimental proteomics and modelling in E. coli, the amount of protein needed to run respiration (per ATP produced) is shown to be twice as much as that needed to run fermentation; results demonstrate that overflow metabolism (known as the Warburg effect in cancer cells) is a necessary outcome of optimal bacterial growth, governed by a global resource allocation program, and that the methodology is directly applicable to synthetic biology and cancer research.

doi: 10.1038/nature15765

Letters

宇宙論:中高温バリオンは宇宙のクモの巣構造のフィラメントの5~10%を構成する

Warm–hot baryons comprise 5–10 per cent of filaments in the cosmic web p.105

In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of the estimated number by a factor of two, and simulations have indicated that the missing baryons reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web; X-ray observations of filamentary structures associated with the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 now find that 5 to 10 per cent of the filament mass is in the form of baryonic gas.

doi: 10.1038/nature16058

宇宙物理学:超高輝度超軟X線源からの相対論的バリオンジェット

Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source p.108

Persistent low-velocity baryonic jets have been detected from a supersoft X-ray source; the low velocity suggests that these jets have not been launched from a white dwarf, and the persistence speaks against the origin being a canonical black hole or neutron star, indicating that a different type of source must be implicated.

doi: 10.1038/nature15751

核物理学:ab initio アルファ–アルファ散乱

Ab initio alpha–alpha scattering p.111

An ab initio calculation of alpha–alpha scattering is described for which the number of computational operations scales approximately quadratically with particle number and which uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations and lattice effective field theory, combined with the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system.

doi: 10.1038/nature16067

気候科学:観測によって絞り込まれた南極氷床不安定による海水準上昇の可能性

Potential sea-level rise from Antarctic ice-sheet instability constrained by observations p.115

Recent work has suggested that sections of the West Antarctic ice sheet are already rapidly retreating, raising concerns about increased sea-level rise; now, an ice-sheet model is used to simulate the mass loss from the entire Antarctic ice sheet to 2200, suggesting that it could contribute up to 30 cm of sea-level rise by 2100 and 72 cm by 2200, but is unlikely to contribute more.

doi: 10.1038/nature16147

気候変動生態学:熱帯林の干ばつで起こる高木の枯死は、炭素飢餓ではなく水輸送の機能低下によって引き起こされる

Death from drought in tropical forests is triggered by hydraulics not carbon starvation p.119

It has been suggested that carbon starvation, owing to reduced availability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), is an important contributor to tree mortality during drought in tropical rainforests; however, data from the world’s longest-running experimental drought study presented here show no evidence of carbon starvation, and instead the researchers conclude that impaired water hydraulic processes (involving the transport of water from soil to leaf) have a more important role in triggering tree death from long-term drought.

doi: 10.1038/nature15539

神経科学:遺伝的救済あるいはアンチセンスオリゴヌクレオチドを用いたMECP2重複マウスの表現型の解消

Reversal of phenotypes in MECP2 duplication mice using genetic rescue or antisense oligonucleotides p.123

Genetic correction of MeCP2 levels largely reversed the behavioural, molecular and physiological deficits associated with MECP2 duplication syndrome in a transgenic mouse model; similarly, reduction of MeCP2 levels using an antisense oligonucleotide strategy resulted in phenotypic rescue in adult transgenic mice, and dose-dependently corrected MeCP2 levels in cells from patients with MECP2 duplication.

doi: 10.1038/nature16159

細胞生物学:治療用抗体によって明らかにされた、成人肺での分化転換のNotchによる制御

Therapeutic antibodies reveal Notch control of transdifferentiation in the adult lung p.127

Inhibitory antibodies to two specific human and mouse Notch ligands, Jagged1 and Jagged2, are generated and shown to have beneficial effects in a goblet cell metaplasia asthma model; systemic Jagged1 inhibition transdifferentiates secretory cells into ciliated cells in the mouse, demonstrating that Jagged1 from ciliated cells normally holds back secretory cells to adopt the ciliated fate.

doi: 10.1038/nature15715

免疫学:制御性T細胞レパートリーの拡大機構と自己寛容におけるその役割

A mechanism for expansion of regulatory T-cell repertoire and its role in self-tolerance p.132

Regulatory T cells need to express a diverse T-cell-receptor repertoire to control pathogenic self-reactive T cells; here it is shown that repertoire diversification depends on the intronic Foxp3 enhancer CNS3 acting at the regulatory T-cell-precursor stage to induce T-cell-receptor responsiveness to low-strength signals.

doi: 10.1038/nature16141

代謝疾患:脂肪常在性Treg細胞の枯渇は老化に伴うインスリン抵抗性の発生を防止する

Depletion of fat-resident Treg cells prevents age-associated insulin resistance p.137

Fat-resident regulatory T cells (fTreg cells) accumulate in adipose tissue of mice as a function of age, but not obesity; mice without fTreg cells are protected against age-associated insulin resistance, but remain susceptible to obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic disease, indicating different aetiologies of age-associated versus obesity-associated insulin resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature16151

ゲノミクス:単一細胞とFFPE組織標品におけるDNアーゼI高感受性部位の全ゲノムでの検出

Genome-wide detection of DNase I hypersensitive sites in single cells and FFPE tissue samples p.142

A DNase sequencing method termed scDNase-seq detects DNase I hypersensitive sites genome-wide in single cells and pools of cells dissected from cancer biopsies.

doi: 10.1038/nature15740

遺伝学:転写調節因子は状況依存的な調節機能を持つさまざまなグループを形成している

Transcriptional regulators form diverse groups with context-dependent regulatory functions p.147

A large-scale enhancer complementation assay assessing the activating or repressing contributions of over 800 Drosophila transcription factors and cofactors to combinatorial enhancer control reveals a more complex picture than expected, with many factors having diverse regulatory functions that depend on the enhancer context.

doi: 10.1038/nature15545

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