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Editorials

原発事故の影響を、精神面を含めて長期的に調べる福島県の「県民健康管理調査」は、今後の世界の大災害にも役立つだろう。

Troubling thoughts p.271

A sustained commitment to mental-health treatment for Fukushima evacuees could also help survivors of future disasters.

doi: 10.1038/493271a

研究機関や研究者は、機密情報を漏らさないよう、投資家などとの関係には細心の注意を払うべきだ。

Knowledge trades p.271

Institutions must carefully evaluate their researchers’ relationships with Wall Street.

doi: 10.1038/493271b

野生動物の行動の遺伝学的研究では、古くからの動物観察の知識を生かして、対象とすべき種を選ぶことが重要だ。

Natural history p.272

Age-old field methods can tell us more about animal behaviour than can laboratory models.

doi: 10.1038/493272a

News

HIVの抗体療法の臨床試験に対し、アフリカで実施されることや効果についての批判が。

HIV trial under scrutiny p.279

Critics say that antibody therapy is too expensive for its African target population.

doi: 10.1038/493279a

研究情報を利用したインサイダー取引が多発しており、懸念が。

Insider trading sparks concerns p.280

Universities indulge researchers’ ties to finance industry.

doi: 10.1038/493280a

米最高裁が、ヒト胚性幹細胞を用いた研究を認める決定を。

Court lifts cloud over embryonic stem cells p.282

But research on induced stem cells may be the real winner.

doi: 10.1038/493282a

テレビへの利用で、量子ドットの市場拡大に期待が。

Quantum dots go on display p.283

Adoption by TV makers could expand the market for light-emitting nanocrystals.

doi: 10.1038/493283a

DNA解析で、野生ネズミの巣穴作り行動にかかわる遺伝子が明らかに。

Behaviour genes unearthed p.284

Speedy sequencing underpins genetic analysis of burrowing in wild oldfield mice.

doi: 10.1038/493284a

ポリオ根絶の最終段階として、WHOが不活化ワクチンへの切り替えを推進へ。

Vaccine switch urged for polio endgame p.285

Inactivated virus vaccine could deliver the final blow.

doi: 10.1038/493285a

News Features

科学の系統:王朝

Scientific families: Dynasty p.286

Bob Paineの学説とそれを受け継ぐ「アカデミックファミリー」は、生態学をどのように変えてきたのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/493286a

原子力の安全性:放射能の恐怖の影響

Fukushima: Fallout of fear p.290

福島第一原発事故から2年近く経ち、被災者は放射線による物理的危険からは守られているが、心の傷は癒されないままである。

doi: 10.1038/493290a

News & Views

進化:譲歩の歴史

Evolution: A history of give and take p.308

環境変化は絶滅と強く相関するが、種分化との相関は高くないことが、深海堆積物コアから得られた微生物の化石によって示された。これは進化を推進する力に対する見方に微妙な影響を与えるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature11851

地球科学:地核中のニッケルを調べる

Earth science: Plumbing nickel from the core p.309

地球表面に噴出したマグマが調べられ、新しいマントル供給源候補が明らかになった。この供給源はニッケルに富んでおり、ヘリウム同位体の存在比は始原的であって、マントルの非常に深い所に起源を持つ可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/nature11852

幹細胞:再プログラム化の波に乗る

Stem cells: Surf the waves of reprogramming p.310

細胞を再プログラム化して幹細胞に似た状態にする方法は、生物医学で非常に有用と考えられるにもかかわらず、効率が悪く、十分解明されていない。今回、この過程の分子レベルでの詳細な解析が行われたことは、このような制限を乗り越えるのに役立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/493310b

進化遺伝学:すみかを作るための遺伝子

Evolutionary genetics: Genes for home-building p.312

ハイイロシロアシマウスとシカシロアシマウスでは巣穴の様式が異なっている。この2つの種の遺伝学的解析によって、この違いに関連する染色体領域が明らかになった。この結果は、複雑な行動も遺伝子モジュールの組み合わせから生じることを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/493312a

神経科学:記憶と単一の分子

Neuroscience: Memory and the single molecule p.312

脳に特異的に存在する酵素のPKM-ζは、長期記憶の維持の基盤となっていると考えられてきた。だが、PKM-ζを欠失するマウスでの研究から、このタンパク質の重要性に疑いが投げかけられている。

doi: 10.1038/nature11850

分析化学:多孔質固体で可視化された欠陥

Analytical chemistry: Defects visualized in porous solids p.313

共焦点蛍光顕微鏡を用いて、金属有機構造体と呼ばれる結晶性の多孔質固体中の欠陥が可視化され、欠陥の数と材料の性質の間の関係を明らかにできる。

doi: 10.1038/493313a

計算材料科学:信頼するに足る予測

Computational materials science: Trustworthy predictions p.314

ある種の絶縁体の詳細な量子力学的性質を計算によって予測する方法が開発された。この方法は、既存の方法を使った予測に内在する不確実性を回避できる。

doi: 10.1038/nature11767

Articles

物性:実際の固体における電子波動関数の厳密な記述に向けて

Towards an exact description of electronic wavefunctions in real solids p.365

The properties of all materials arise largely from the quantum mechanics of their constituent electrons under the influence of the electric field of the nuclei. The solution of the underlying many-electron Schrödinger equation is a ‘non-polynomial hard’ problem, owing to the complex interplay of kinetic energy, electron–electron repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle. The dominant computational method for describing such systems has been density functional theory. Quantum-chemical methods—based on an explicit ansatz for the many-electron wavefunctions and, hence, potentially more accurate—have not been fully explored in the solid state owing to their computational complexity, which ranges from strongly exponential to high-order polynomial in system size. Here we report the application of an exact technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo to a variety of real solids, providing reference many-electron energies that are used to rigorously benchmark the standard hierarchy of quantum-chemical techniques, up to the ‘gold standard’ coupled-cluster ansatz, including single, double and perturbative triple particle–hole excitation operators. We show the errors in cohesive energies predicted by this method to be small, indicating the potential of this computationally polynomial scaling technique to tackle current solid-state problems.

doi: 10.1038/nature11770

医学:eIF4E依存性翻訳の調節異常による自閉症関連障害

Autism-related deficits via dysregulated eIF4E-dependent translational control p.371

Hyperconnectivity of neuronal circuits due to increased synaptic protein synthesis is thought to cause autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is strongly implicated in ASDs by means of upstream signalling; however, downstream regulatory mechanisms are ill-defined. Here we show that knockout of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2)—an eIF4E repressor downstream of mTOR—or eIF4E overexpression leads to increased translation of neuroligins, which are postsynaptic proteins that are causally linked to ASDs. Mice that have the gene encoding 4E-BP2 (Eif4ebp2) knocked out exhibit an increased ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synaptic inputs and autistic-like behaviours (that is, social interaction deficits, altered communication and repetitive/stereotyped behaviours). Pharmacological inhibition of eIF4E activity or normalization of neuroligin 1, but not neuroligin 2, protein levels restores the normal excitation/inhibition ratio and rectifies the social behaviour deficits. Thus, translational control by eIF4E regulates the synthesis of neuroligins, maintaining the excitation-to-inhibition balance, and its dysregulation engenders ASD-like phenotypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11628

Letters

宇宙:変光する原始星におけるパルス状の降着

Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar p.378

The infrared luminosity of a young protostar (about 105 years old) is found to increase by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days; this is attributed to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion.

doi: 10.1038/nature11746

宇宙:遠隔連星への銀河系の摂動による惑星系の分裂

Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars p.381

Numerical simulations of a widely separated binary star system demonstrate that planetary systems around one star may often be strongly perturbed by the other star, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets.

doi: 10.1038/nature11780

材料:極高硬度(ultrahard)ナノ双晶立方晶窒化ホウ素

Ultrahard nanotwinned cubic boron nitride p.385

The hardness, toughness and chemical stability of the well-known superhard material cubic boron nitride have been improved by using a synthesis technique based on specially prepared ‘onion-like’ precursor materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature11728

気候:東アフリカの水文気候の数十年規模変動はインド洋によって制御されている

Multidecadal variability in East African hydroclimate controlled by the Indian Ocean p.389

Proxy indicators of relative moisture balance, in combination with long control simulations from coupled climate models, show that the Indian Ocean drives multidecadal hydroclimate variability by altering the local Walker circulation, whereas the influence of the Pacific Ocean is minimal on these timescales.

doi: 10.1038/nature11785

地球:核マントル境界上部のメルトに対するニッケルとヘリウムの証拠

Nickel and helium evidence for melt above the core–mantle boundary p.393

Several nickel-rich and helium-rich lava samples from ocean islands and large igneous provinces suggest that mantle plume material formed by core–mantle interaction during the crystallization of a melt-rich layer or basal magma ocean.

doi: 10.1038/nature11771

海洋:浮遊性有孔虫の多様性と絶滅の海洋による制御

Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera p.398

Plate tectonics and climate change are shown to have driven the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera throughout their evolutionary history.

doi: 10.1038/nature11815

進化:Peromyscus属マウスの複雑な巣穴の進化には別々の遺伝的モジュールが複数関与している

Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice p.402

The complex burrows created by oldfield mice are shown to be governed by genetic modules that each control an aspect of burrow size or shape.

doi: 10.1038/nature11816

医学:PPM1Dのモザイク変異は乳がんおよび卵巣がんの素因と関連している

Mosaic PPM1D mutations are associated with predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer p.406

Rare truncating mutations in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are shown to be associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer; notably, all of the mutations are mosaic in white blood cells but are not present in tumours, and probably have a gain-of-function effect.

doi: 10.1038/nature11725

医学:過剰な翻訳が、自閉症に関連したシナプス異常や行動異常を引き起こす

Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism p.411

Mice overexpressing eIF4E show autism-related behaviours and altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum, and these phenotypes can be rescued with the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature11782

神経生物学:Prkczヌルマウスが示す正常な学習および記憶機能

Prkcz null mice show normal learning and memory p.416

Genetically removing PKM-ζ in mice has no effect on memory, and despite absence of this kinase, the original peptide inhibitor of PKM-ζ still disrupts memory in these mutant mice; these data re-open the exploration for key molecules regulating maintenance of long-term plasticity processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11803

神経生物学:海馬のシナプス可塑性、記憶および学習にPKM-ζは必要でない

PKM-ζ is not required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory p.420

It was proposed that protein kinase M-ζ (PKM-ζ) is a key factor in long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory maintenance on the basis of the disruption of LTP and memory by inhibitors of PKM-ζ; however, here mice that do not express PKM-ζ are shown to have normal LTP and memory, thus casting doubts on a critical role for PKM-ζ in these processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11802

神経生物学:ショウジョウバエでのすばやいにおい側性化を可能にする非対称性の神経伝達物質放出

Asymmetric neurotransmitter release enables rapid odour lateralization in Drosophila p.424

When an odour activates a fly′s antennae asymmetrically, more neurotransmitter is released from olfactory receptor neuron axon branches ipsilateral to the antenna than from contralateral branches. This causes ipsilateral central olfactory neurons to begin spiking earlier and at a higher rate than contralateral neurons, thereby enabling a walking fly to turn towards the odour.

doi: 10.1038/nature11747

細胞:細菌のCRISPR/Cas免疫系を不活化するバクテリオファージ遺伝子

Bacteriophage genes that inactivate the CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system p.429

Five classes of phage genes are identified that protect phages from CRISPR-mediated bacterial immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature11723

再生医学:哺乳類の心臓は既存の心筋細胞により再生する

Mammalian heart renewal by pre-existing cardiomyocytes p.433

During normal ageing a low rate of division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, rather than progenitor cells, is responsible for cardiomyocyte genesis; this process is increased fourfold during myocardial infarction.

doi: 10.1038/nature11682

細胞:RNAポリメラーゼII–TFIIB初期転写複合体の構造と機能

Structure and function of the initially transcribing RNA polymerase II–TFIIB complex p.437

Crystal structures of the Pol II–TFIIB complex in free form and bound by the DNA template and a short RNA product are reported; the latter complex represents an initially transcribing complex, a critical transient state in the pathway from transcription initiation to elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11715

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