Although there is evidence that microbiota may influence neuronal function and in turn, behaviour, little is known about the mechanisms that drive these correlations. Here, David Artis and colleagues reveal that manipulation of the microbiota in mice can negatively affect fear extinction learning in a manner independent of the vagus nerve. Re-establishment of typical microbiota during a particular developmental window could rescue normal extinction learning in the adult. Thus, microbiota-derived signals can influence learning during both early brain development and in adults.
Recent Hot Topics
Sign up for Nature Research e-alerts to get the lastest research in your inbox every week.